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King-Size Canary
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PostPosted: 10-03-2013 16:12    Post subject: Reply with quote

And how did the Northerners find out about the construction? Never mind the complete lack of TV, radio or internet for communication over long distances, were they even speaking the same language?
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PostPosted: 10-03-2013 17:04    Post subject: Reply with quote

gncxx wrote:
And how did the Northerners find out about the construction? Never mind the complete lack of TV, radio or internet for communication over long distances, were they even speaking the same language?

Runners. Messengers and traders. Travelling knights.
Travelling minstrels.
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What a Cad!
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PostPosted: 20-04-2013 08:44    Post subject: Reply with quote

Stonehenge occupied 5,000 years earlier than previously thought
Stonehenge may have been occupied five thousand years earlier than previously thought, archaeologists claim.
By Nick Collins, Science Correspondent
12:01AM BST 19 Apr 2013

Excavation of a site just a mile from the stone structure provided what researchers claim is the first firm evidence of continuous occupation from as early as 7,500BC.

Earlier evidence had suggested that humans were present at the site, known as Vespasian's Camp, around 7,500BC but there were no signs anyone had lived there until as late as 2,500BC.

By carbon-dating materials found at the site, the archaeologists identified a semi-permanent settlement which was occupied from 7,500 to 4,700BC, with evidence that people were present during every millennium in between.

The people occupying the site would likely have been responsible for erecting the first monument at Stonehenge, the Mesolithic posts, between the 9th and 7th millennia BC.

Instead of being seen as a site which was abandoned by Mesolithic humans and occupied by Neolithic men thousands of years later, Stonehenge should be recognised as a place where one culture merged with the other, researchers said.
The findings will be broadcast in an episode of The Flying Archaeologist on BBC Four on Monday week. [My corrections - ryn]

Dr David Jacques of the Open University, who led the study, said he identified the settlement after deciding to search for evidence around a spring on the site, which he reasoned could have attracted animals.

"My thinking was where you find wild animals, you tend to find people," he said. "What we found was the nearest secure watering hole for animals and people, a type of all year round fresh water source. It’s the nearest one to this place [Stonehenge]. I think it’s pivotal.”

Dr Josh Pollard of the Stonehenge Riverside Project added: “The team have found the community who put the first monument up at Stonehenge.
“The significance of David’s work lies in finding substantial evidence of Mesolithic settlement in the Stonehenge landscape [which was] previously largely lacking, apart from the enigmatic posts, and being able to demonstrate that there were repeated visits to this area from the 9th to the 5th millennia BC."

The Flying Archaeologist
Monday 29th April at 8:30pm on BBC Four

The Flying Archaeologist, Episode 1: Stonehenge: The Missing Link: Archaeologist Ben Robinson flies over Wiltshire to uncover sites discovered through aerial phototographs. These have led to new evidence about Stonehenge that explains the reason for its location and how long ago it was occupied
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What a Cad!
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PostPosted: 12-09-2013 07:20    Post subject: Reply with quote

Stonehenge bone display endorsed by English Heritage governors

A proposal to display human remains at Stonehenge has been endorsed by English Heritage governors, despite a druid's legal challenge.
King Arthur Pendragon has threatened "the biggest protest in Europe" if bones are put on permanent display.
However English Heritage backed the plan for the new visitor centre, saying it was consistent with current UK museum practice.

Last month the druid launched a legal challenge to prevent the display.
He said: "English Heritage has two choices - they can either be world leaders and show the way to the rest of the world, or they can stick with the Victorian idea of ogling at the dead, in which case they would have the biggest protest in Europe because I would be leading it."
Instead he wants fake human remains to be used at the visitor centre, which is part of a £27m project due to finish this year.

English Heritage said the proposal had been carefully considered and there was strong consensus that it must communicate "all the key narratives and archaeological findings" to the public.
Two of the three sets of human remains were excavated more than 50 years ago and the third was uncovered during road improvement works in 2001.
All three sets of remains are more than 4,500 years old.

"If English Heritage was not displaying them, they would remain in the collections of the Salisbury and South Wiltshire Museum and the Duckworth Collection, University of Cambridge," said a spokesman for the organisation.
"Their presentation, treatment and storage will follow strict guidelines set out by the UK government's Department for Culture, Media and Sport.
"Visitors will be made aware of the display before they enter the exhibition."

Once complete, the new visitor centre will provide information and history about the giant stones.
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Psycho Punk
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PostPosted: 14-09-2013 01:05    Post subject: Reply with quote

Ancient pathway uncovered during works at Stonehenge

Stonehenge before and after the A344 is covered over

The A344 - which ran by the stones - is being restored to grass

An ancient ceremonial pathway linking Stonehenge and the nearby River Avon has been unearthed during work to close the road alongside the monument.

Two ditches buried beneath the A344 represent either side of the Avenue, a processional approach aligned with the sunrise of the summer solstice.

Its connection with Stonehenge had been severed when the A344 was built hundreds of years ago.

The find was made near the Heel Stone, about 24 metres from the monument.

English Heritage's Heather Sebire called it "the missing piece of the jigsaw", as the Avenue had been difficult to identify on the ground, but is clearly visible in aerial photographs.

She said: "The part of the Avenue that was cut through by the road has obviously been destroyed forever, but we were hopeful that archaeology below the road would survive.

'Restore dignity'
"It is very exciting to find a piece of physical evidence that officially makes the connection which we were hoping for."

National Trust archaeologist Dr Nick Snashall said it confirms "with total certainty" that Stonehenge and its Avenue were linked.

Work is currently being carried out to restore the A344 alongside the monument to grass and build a new visitor centre.

English Heritage said the work would "restore the dignity" of the stones' setting and "minimise the intrusion of the modern world".

Once the A344 has been restored to grass in summer 2014, markers will be put in place to demonstrate the solstice alignment.

English Heritage said it will enable visitors to "appreciate the position of the Avenue and its intimate connection with and significance to Stonehenge".
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What a Cad!
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PostPosted: 20-11-2013 09:46    Post subject: Reply with quote

Another piece in Stonehenge rock source puzzle
By Neil Prior, BBC News

Research to be published this month may bring us a step closer to understanding how bluestones from Pembrokeshire ended up at Stonehenge.
Scientists from Aberystwyth University, University College London and National Museum of Wales have located the specific outcrop, Carn Goedog, in the Preseli Mountains.
This is where the distinctive spotted dolerites originated.
The findings are to be published in the Journal of Archaeological Science.

Geologist Herbert Henry Thomas first proposed in 1923 that the rocks which form the giant inner ring were specifically quarried for Stonehenge by Neolithic man around 5,000 years ago, and were hauled to Wiltshire via land and sea.

However, other geologists theorise that they were carried east on an ice-age glacier 20,000 years ago.

While the new discovery will not answer the debate, according to Dr Richard Bevins, of the National Museum Wales, it may eliminate some of the unknown variables.
"I'm not here to come down on one side of the argument or the other," he explained.
"But our research is aimed at better informing the debate."

Dr Bevins, keeper of natural sciences, added: "Trying to match the rocks at Stonehenge to a specific outcrop is considerably more complicated than looking for a needle in a haystack but the more we can trace them back to their original source, the closer archaeologists and geologists can hunt for clues to back-up their theories.
"Archaeologists can now search an area of hundreds of metres rather than hundreds of kilometres for evidence of Neolithic quarrying.
"While geologists supporting the glacier theory know exactly where to hunt for the scarring they'd expect to find on the landscape if enormous chunks of the stone had indeed been swept east on a glacier."

As the name suggests, the spotted dolerites have highly distinctive markings created by the elements contained within, cooling at different rates in the minutes after they were spewed out of an underwater volcano 450 million years ago.
In 2011, Dr Bevins's team located the source of another of Stonehenge's Pembrokeshire Bluestones - the rhyolites - 3km away from the spotted dolerites at Craig Rhos y Felin.
Although the relative proximity of the two discoveries offers evidence to both camps.

"Three kilometres is both closer and farther away than expected, depending on which theory you support.
"From a geologist's point of view, 3km is nothing, and the rocks which ended up close to each other in Wiltshire could easily have been carried on the same glacier.
"However, for the archaeologists a distance of 3km between the potential quarries could be seen as evidence of planning and forethought, and a suggestion that the different types of stone were chosen for some specific purpose."

Dr Bevins's team are able to say so categorically that they have discovered the source of the spotted dolerites thanks to a range of laser mass spectrometry techniques which analyse both the chemical composition of the rock and the microbiology present when it was formed.
He says that the chance of them having originated anywhere other than Carn Goedog is "statistically-speaking, infinitesimally small"

And while he is the first to admit that this discovery on its own gets us no closer to solving the riddle, he believes a definitive answer will come eventually.
"I've been studying the bluestones for over 30 years now, and I'm no closer to finding an answer which convinces me either way. But the one thing which I am increasingly sure of is that each piece of the puzzle we find brings us another step closer to the truth.
"We've located two of the sources, and there's another five or possibly six to go."

He added: "By the time we have identified those then I'm certain we'll have an answer either way. Whether that happens in my career, or even my lifetime, who knows?"
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Things can only get better.
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PostPosted: 20-11-2013 11:29    Post subject: Reply with quote

When you look at site you can see how easily they could have been carried on a glacier.
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Great Old One
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PostPosted: 21-11-2013 17:17    Post subject: Reply with quote

Possibly from not so far away?

Stonehenge archaeologists have been digging in the wrong place - for 90 YEARS
21 Nov 2013 00:00

The 11 bluestones were thought to be from Carn Meini in Pembrokeshire - geologists have discovered they come from another hill just over a mile away

Experts trying to uncover the source of Stonehenge’s giant stones have been digging in the wrong spot for 90 years.

It has been a puzzle for generations how the huge Welsh blocks, weighing up to four tons, had reached the ancient monument.

Archeologists were certain the 11 bluestones came from Carn Meini one of the Preseli Hills in Pembrokeshire, 150 miles from Stonehenge in Wiltshire.

But geologists using X-rays have discovered the stones actually come from another hill – just over a mile away.

Now archaeologists, who have spent decades digging for evidence of human activity in the wrong location, are moving to the new site.

They hope to discover if prehistoric man cut the monoliths from the hill called Carn Goedog and transported them, or if the blocks were carried to 4,600-year-old Stonehenge by glaciers in the last Ice Age.

Dr Richard Bevins, of the National Museum of Wales, who helped to identify Carn Goedog as the true source of the stones, said: “I don’t expect to get Christmas cards from the archaeologists who have been excavating at the wrong place all these years.”

He added: “This is an incredibly exciting project and we got confirmation last week that our findings have been verified .

“Getting such positive feedback was a great relief.”

Dr Bevins, a leading authority on volcanic rocks, has been studying the Preseli Hills since the 70s.
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PostPosted: 18-02-2014 18:14    Post subject: Reply with quote

The research results first reported last November (cf. posts immediately above) have now been formally published in the Journal of Archaeological Science :
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PostPosted: 05-03-2014 08:44    Post subject: Reply with quote

Nice piece from The Independent. Our very own Paul Devereux features prominently.

Stonehenge is like a sacred 'prehistoric glockenspiel', researchers claim

Metallic, gong-like noises made by the monument when struck may explain why the stones were chosen by its builders

INdependent. Kashmira gander. 04 March 2014

The pillars that form Stonehenge may have been chosen because they were like sacred “prehistoric glockenspiels”, according to researchers.

The sonorous quality of some of the bluestones used for the monument built between 3,000 BC and 1,600 BC may explain why they were transported 200 miles from Pembrokeshire, Wales, when there were plenty of local rocks to use nearby.

‘Archeo-acoustic’ expert Paul Devereux, the principal investigator on the Landscape and Perception Project, explained the choice to the BBC.

“There had to be something special about these rocks,” he said.

“Why else would they take them from here [Wales] all the way to Stonehenge?”

“It hasn't been considered until now that sound might have been a factor,” he said.

The study by researchers from Royal College of Art in London tried to record what “Stone Age eyes and ears” would have heard and seen in a prehistoric landscape.

To make the findings published in the ‘Journal of Time & Mind’, the team was given unprecedented access by English Heritage to the Carn Menyn ridge on Mynydd Preseli, south-west Wales, where many of Stonehenge's bluestones were quarried.

When the thousands of stones were struck with small hammerstones, researchers found that they gave off metallic sounds like bells, gongs or tin drums.

“There's lots of different tones, you could play a tune,” Mr Devereux said, adding: “In fact, we have had percussionists who have played proper percussion pieces off the rocks."

To prove their theory, when researchers tested all the bluestones at Stonehenge, several were found to make distinctive sounds, despite their acoustic potential being dampened by being set deep in the ground.

A number of bluestones at Stonehenge show evidence of having been struck, confirming why so many Neolithic monuments exist in the region, and provides strong evidence that the sounds made the landscape sacred to Stone Age people, the study concluded.

Professor Tim Darvill, an archaeology professor at Bournemouth University who has undertaken hundreds of excavations at Stonehenge, explained to the BBC that “pre-historic attitudes to stone” are likely to have been different to those of today.

“We don't know of course that they moved them because they rang but ringing rocks are a prominent part of many cultures,” he said.

“You can almost see them as a pre-historic glockenspiel, if you like, and you could knock them and hear these tunes.

"And soundscapes of pre-history are something we're really just beginning to explore," he said.

The glockenspiel player must have had very long arms. Smile
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PostPosted: 05-03-2014 12:39    Post subject: Reply with quote

There were giants on the earth in those days.
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