Forums

 
 FAQFAQ   SearchSearch   MemberlistMemberlist   UsergroupsUsergroups   ProfileProfile   Log in to check your private messagesLog in to check your private messages 
The first Americans
Goto page Previous  1, 2, 3 ... 13, 14, 15, 16  Next
 
Post new topic   Reply to topic    Fortean Times Message Board Forum Index -> Earth Mysteries - historical and classical cases
View previous topic :: View next topic  
Author Message
Jerry_BOffline
Great Old One
Joined: 15 Apr 2002
Total posts: 8072
PostPosted: 23-06-2011 08:34    Post subject: Reply with quote

Scientists reveal a first in Ice Age art

Researchers from the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Florida have announced the discovery of a bone fragment, approximately 13,000 years old, in Florida with an incised image of a mammoth or mastodon.

The engraving, approximately 13,000 years old, is 3 inches long from the top of the head to the tip of the tail, and 1.75 inches tall from the top of the head to the bottom of the right foreleg.
This engraving is the oldest and only known example of Ice Age art to depict a proboscidean (the order of animals with trunks) in the Americas. The team's research is published online in the Journal of Archaeological Science.

The bone was discovered in Vero Beach, Fla. by James Kennedy, an avocational fossil hunter, who collected the bone and later while cleaning the bone, discovered the engraving. Recognizing its potential importance, Kennedy contacted scientists at the University of Florida and the Smithsonian's Museum Conservation Institute and National Museum of Natural History.

"This is an incredibly exciting discovery," said Dennis Stanford, anthropologist at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History and co-author of this research. "There are hundreds of depictions of proboscideans on cave walls and carved into bones in Europe, but none from America- until now."

The engraving is 3 inches long from the top of the head to the tip of the tail, and 1.75 inches tall from the top of the head to the bottom of the right foreleg. The fossil bone is a fragment from a long bone of a large mammal- most likely either a mammoth or mastodon, or less likely a giant sloth. A precise identification was not possible because of the bone's fragmented condition and lack of diagnostic features.

"The results of this investigation are an excellent example of the value of interdisciplinary research and cooperation among scientists," said Barbara Purdy, professor emerita of anthropology at the University of Florida and lead author of the team's research. "There was considerable skepticism expressed about the authenticity of the incising on the bone until it was examined exhaustively by archaeologists, paleontologists, forensic anthropologists, materials science engineers and artists."

One of the main goals for the research team was to investigate the timing of the engraving- was it ancient or was it recently engraved to mimic an example of prehistoric art? It was originally found near a location, known as the Old Vero Site, where human bones were found side-by-side with the bones of extinct Ice Age animals in an excavation from 1913 to 1916. The team examined the elemental composition of the engraved bone and others from the Old Vero Site. They also used optical and electron microscopy, which showed no discontinuity in coloration between the carved grooves and the surrounding material. This indicated that both surfaces aged simultaneously and that the edges of the carving were worn and showed no signs of being carved recently or that the grooves were made with metal tools.

Believed to be genuine, this rare specimen provides evidence that people living in the Americas during the last Ice Age created artistic images of the animals they hunted. The engraving is at least 13,000 years old as this is the date for the last appearance of these animals in eastern North America, and more recent Pre-Columbian people would not have seen a mammoth or mastodon to draw.

The team's research also further validates the findings of geologist Elias Howard Sellards at the Old Vero Site in the early 20th Century. His claims that people were in North America and hunted animals at Vero Beach during the last Ice Age have been disputed over the past 95 years.

A cast of the carved fossil bone is now part of an exhibit of Florida Mammoth and Mastodons at the Florida Museum of Natural History in Gainesville.

Source
Back to top
View user's profile Visit poster's website 
YithianOffline
Keeping the British end up
Joined: 29 Oct 2002
Total posts: 8770
Location: Vermilion Sands
Gender: Unknown
PostPosted: 23-06-2011 09:19    Post subject: Heffalumps Reply with quote

http://i2.photobucket.com/albums/y45/yithian/article-2006844-0CAE2E2100000578-385_634x419.jpg

It's rather elegant as it goes: a nice little sketch/study.

Look at the curvature in the line of the legs and the rising torso; it's quite keenly observed.
Back to top
View user's profile Visit poster's website 
PeniGOffline
Proud children's writer
Joined: 31 Dec 2003
Total posts: 2345
Location: San Antonio, Texas
Age: 53
Gender: Female
PostPosted: 23-06-2011 12:57    Post subject: Reply with quote

And, it's not shaggy! It's a Columbian (or Jeffersonian, or some variation thereof) mammoth, not a woolly! Which is exactly right for Florida.

Yes, this is wonderful. Very Happy
Back to top
View user's profile Visit poster's website 
staticgirlOffline
Following my fish
Joined: 12 Oct 2003
Total posts: 514
Location: Hertfordshire
Age: 42
Gender: Female
PostPosted: 23-06-2011 15:57    Post subject: Reply with quote

*reads PeniG's post and thinks this is a most marvellous messageboard*
Back to top
View user's profile Visit poster's website 
CultjunkyOffline
Great Old One
Joined: 26 Jan 2009
Total posts: 1373
Location: Leeds
Age: 45
Gender: Female
PostPosted: 23-06-2011 20:28    Post subject: Reply with quote

That's just WOW. Assuming the tool used to be flint, it's astonishing how clearly defined it is. Shame there's not a full head, I'd love to think that this was a practice piece, and there's a more complete version out there somewhere.
Back to top
View user's profile 
PeniGOffline
Proud children's writer
Joined: 31 Dec 2003
Total posts: 2345
Location: San Antonio, Texas
Age: 53
Gender: Female
PostPosted: 24-06-2011 11:40    Post subject: Reply with quote

The definition of the engraving is not particularly astonishing compared to other engravings of similar age, of which we have many examples from Europe, Cultjunky. Chert (of which flint is a type), obsidian, and volcanic glass are all capable of holding a razor edge, and bone is a relatively soft material. I don't know off the top of my head which lithic materials were most often used in Florida, which is pretty poor in such resources and would have obtained its best toolstone by trade and/or regular visits to distant quarries. Probably mostly trade, as shells and salt would have been readily available in Florida and valued in non-Coastal areas.

It is tempting to start comparing this mammoth to those on cave walls and portable art from Europe, particularly those associated with Solutrean cultures, in light of Stanford's Solutrean hypothesis; but comparing art styles has a huge subjective element and comparing one sample to the large European one is an invitation to cherrypicking.

What we need, of course, is more art. I've been thinking for awhile now that as the Clovis First purists die off, replaced by the new generation which is excited by the breaking of that paradigm, that we're going to have more people looking in the right places to find the really old art and artifacts and recognizing them when found. This may be the first find of many.
Back to top
View user's profile Visit poster's website 
Jerry_BOffline
Great Old One
Joined: 15 Apr 2002
Total posts: 8072
PostPosted: 24-06-2011 12:51    Post subject: Reply with quote

One wonders how petroglyphs may get reappraised once those 'Clovis First' types die off.
Back to top
View user's profile Visit poster's website 
PeniGOffline
Proud children's writer
Joined: 31 Dec 2003
Total posts: 2345
Location: San Antonio, Texas
Age: 53
Gender: Female
PostPosted: 22-08-2011 12:19    Post subject: Reply with quote

Mammoth petroglyph in Utah!
http://www.stonepages.com/docs/malotki-wallace.pdf
Back to top
View user's profile Visit poster's website 
rynner2Offline
What a Cad!
Joined: 13 Dec 2008
Total posts: 26165
Location: Under the moon
Gender: Male
PostPosted: 21-10-2011 07:03    Post subject: Reply with quote

Old American theory is 'speared'
By Jonathan Amos, Science correspondent, BBC News

An ancient bone with a projectile point lodged within it appears to up-end - once and for all - a long-held idea of how the Americas were first populated.
The rib, from a tusked beast known as a mastodon, has been dated precisely to 13,800 years ago.
This places it before the so-called Clovis hunters, who many academics had argued were the North American continent's original inhabitants.
News of the dating results is reported in Science magazine.

In truth, the "Clovis first" model, which holds to the idea that America's original human population swept across a land-bridge from Siberia some 13,000 years ago, has looked untenable for some time.
A succession of archaeological finds right across the United States and northern Mexico have indicated there was human activity much earlier than this - perhaps as early as 15-16,000 years ago.
The mastodon rib, however, really leaves the once cherished model with nowhere to go.

The specimen has actually been known about for more than 30 years. It is plainly from an old male animal that had been attacked with some kind of weaponry.
It was found in the late 1970s near Manis, just north of Seattle, in Washington State.
Although scientists at the time correctly identified the specimen's antiquity, adherents to the Clovis-first model questioned the dating and interpretation of the site.

To try to settle any lingering uncertainty, Prof Michael Waters of Texas A&M University and colleagues called upon a range of up-to-date analytical tools and revisited the specimen.
These investigations included new radio carbon tests using atomic accelerators.
"The beauty of atomic accelerators is that you can date very small samples and also very chemically pure samples," Prof Waters told BBC News.
"We extracted specific amino acids from the collagen in the bone and dated those, and yielded dates 13,800 years ago, plus or minus 20 years. That's very precise."

Computed tomography, which creates exquisite 3D X-ray images of objects, was also used to study the embedded point. The visualisation reveals how the projectile end had been deliberately sharpened to give a needle-like quality. And it also enabled the scientists to estimate the projectile end's likely original size - at least 27cm long, they believe.
"The other thing that's really interesting is that as it went in, the very tip broke and rotated off to the side," said the Texas A&M researcher.
"That's a very common breakage pattern when any kind of projectile hits bone. You see it even in stone projectiles that are embedded in, say, bison bones."

DNA investigation also threw up a remarkable irony - the point itself was made from mastodon bone, proving that the people who fashioned it were systematically hunting or scavenging animal bones to make their tools.

The timing of humanity's presence in North America is important because it plays into the debate over why so many great beasts from the end of the last Ice Age in that quarter of the globe went extinct.
Not just mastodons, but woolly mammoths, sabre-toothed cats, giant sloths, camels, and teratorns (predatory birds with a nearly four-metre wingspan) - all disappeared in short order a little over 12,700 years ago.

A rapidly changing climate in North America is assumed to have played a key role - as is the sophisticated stone-tool weaponry used by the Clovis hunters. But the fact that there are also humans with effective bone and antler killing technologies present in North America deeper in time suggests the hunting pressure on these animals may have been even greater than previously thought.
"Humans clearly had a role in these extinctions and by the time the Clovis technology turns up at 13,000 years ago - that's the end. They finished them off," said Prof Waters.

"You know, the Clovis-first model has been dying for some time," he finished. "But there's nothing harder to change than a paradigm, than long-standing thinking. When Clovis-First was first proposed, it was a very elegant model but it's time to move on, and most of the archaeological community is doing just that."

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-15391388
Back to top
View user's profile 
special_farcesOffline
Great Old One
Joined: 12 Jan 2009
Total posts: 204
Location: Leeds
Age: 49
Gender: Male
PostPosted: 14-11-2011 22:46    Post subject: Reply with quote

Not so ancient but interesting all the same:

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/11/111114112314.htm[/code]
Back to top
View user's profile 
rynner2Offline
What a Cad!
Joined: 13 Dec 2008
Total posts: 26165
Location: Under the moon
Gender: Male
PostPosted: 28-02-2012 08:49    Post subject: Reply with quote

New evidence suggests Stone Age hunters from Europe discovered America
David Keys Tuesday 28 February 2012

New archaeological evidence suggests that America was first discovered by Stone Age people from Europe – 10,000 years before the Siberian-originating ancestors of the American Indians set foot in the New World.

A remarkable series of several dozen European-style stone tools, dating back between 19,000 and 26,000 years, have been discovered at six locations along the US east coast. Three of the sites are on the Delmarva Peninsular in Maryland, discovered by archaeologist Dr Darrin Lowery of the University of Delaware. One is in Pennsylvania and another in Virginia. A sixth was discovered by scallop-dredging fishermen on the seabed 60 miles from the Virginian coast on what, in prehistoric times, would have been dry land.

The new discoveries are among the most important archaeological breakthroughs for several decades - and are set to add substantially to our understanding of humanity's spread around the globe.

The similarity between other later east coast US and European Stone Age stone tool technologies has been noted before. But all the US European-style tools, unearthed before the discovery or dating of the recently found or dated US east coast sites, were from around 15,000 years ago - long after Stone Age Europeans (the Solutrean cultures of France and Iberia) had ceased making such artefacts. Most archaeologists had therefore rejected any possibility of a connection. But the newly-discovered and recently-dated early Maryland and other US east coast Stone Age tools are from between 26,000 and 19,000 years ago - and are therefore contemporary with the virtually identical western European material.

What’s more, chemical analysis carried out last year on a European-style stone knife found in Virginia back in 1971 revealed that it was made of French-originating flint.

Professor Dennis Stanford, of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington DC, and Professor Bruce Bradley of the University of Exeter, the two leading archaeologists who have analysed all the evidence, are proposing that Stone Age people from Western Europe migrated to North America at the height of the Ice Age by travelling (over the ice surface and/or by boat) along the edge of the frozen northern part of the Atlantic. They are presenting their detailed evidence in a new book - Across Atlantic Ice – published this month.

At the peak of the Ice Age, around three million square miles of the North Atlantic was covered in thick ice for all or part of the year.

However, the seasonally shifting zone where the ice ended and the open ocean began would have been extremely rich in food resources – migrating seals, sea birds, fish and the now-extinct northern hemisphere penguin-like species, the great auk.

Stanford and Bradley have long argued that Stone Age humans were quite capable of making the 1500 mile journey across the Atlantic ice - but till now there was comparatively little evidence to support their thinking.

But the new Maryland, Virginia and other US east coast material, and the chemical tests on the Virginian flint knife, have begun to transform the situation. Now archaeologists are starting to investigate half a dozen new sites in Tennessee, Maryland and even Texas – and these locations are expected to produce more evidence.

Another key argument for Stanford and Bradley’s proposal is the complete absence of any human activity in north-east Siberia and Alaska prior to around 15,500 years ago. If the Maryland and other east coast people of 26,000 to 19,000 years ago had come from Asia, not Europe, early material, dating from before 19,000 years ago, should have turned up in those two northern areas, but none have been found.

Although Solutrean Europeans may well have been the first Americans, they had a major disadvantage compared to the Asian-originating Indians who entered the New World via the Bering Straits or along the Aleutian Islands chain after 15,500 years ago.

Whereas the Solutreans had only had a 4500 year long ‘Ice Age’ window to carry out their migratory activity, the Asian-originating Indians had some 15,000 years to do it. What’s more, the latter two-thirds of that 15 millennia long period was climatologically much more favourable and substantially larger numbers of Asians were therefore able to migrate.

As a result of these factors the Solutrean (European originating) Native Americans were either partly absorbed by the newcomers or were substantially obliterated by them either physically or through competition for resources.

Some genetic markers for Stone Age western Europeans simply don’t exist in north- east Asia – but they do in tiny quantities among some north American Indian groups. Scientific tests on ancient DNA extracted from 8000 year old skeletons from Florida have revealed a high level of a key probable European-originating genetic marker. There are also a tiny number of isolated Native American groups whose languages appear not to be related in any way to Asian-originating American Indian peoples.

But the greatest amount of evidence is likely to come from under the ocean – for most of the areas where the Solutreans would have stepped off the Ice onto dry land are now up to 100 miles out to sea.

The one underwater site that has been identified - thanks to the scallop dredgers – is set to be examined in greater detail this summer – either by extreme-depth divers or by remotely operated mini submarines equipped with cameras and grab arms.

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/new-evidence-suggests-stone-age-hunters-from-europe-discovered-america-7447152.html
Back to top
View user's profile 
kamalktkOffline
Great Old One
Joined: 05 Feb 2011
Total posts: 981
Gender: Unknown
PostPosted: 02-03-2012 22:10    Post subject: Reply with quote

More on the Solutreans, including quotes from the scientists promoting the idea. http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/radical-theory-of-first-americans-places-stone-age-europeans-in-delmarva-20000-years-ago/2012/02/28/gIQA4mriiR_story.html?hpid=z5
Back to top
View user's profile 
Jerry_BOffline
Great Old One
Joined: 15 Apr 2002
Total posts: 8072
PostPosted: 26-03-2012 20:56    Post subject: Reply with quote

Butchered sloth bone lends more evidence to early North American settlement

March, 26 2012

Montreal Gazette

A Canadian scientist's analysis of ancient animal remains found in Ohio including the leg bone of an extinct giant sloth believed to have been butchered by an Ice Age hunter more than 13,000 years ago has added weight to a once controversial argument that humans arrived in North America thousands of years earlier than previously believed.

The discovery of what appear to be dozens of cut marks on the femur of a gargantuan, 1,300-kilogram Jefferson's ground sloth is being hailed as the earliest trace of a human presence in the Great Lakes state.

But the find also represents a significant new piece of evidence in support of the theory that the first inhabitants of Canada, the U.S. and the rest of the Americas were not the so-called Clovis people - known from distinctive tools they left at various archeological sites from about 12,600 years ago - but a much earlier wave of Ice Age migrants ancestral to many of today's New World aboriginal populations.

The butchered-sloth discovery - recently confirmed by University of Manitoba researcher Haskel Greenfield, co-author of a paper published in the latest issue of the journal World Archaeology - bolsters the growing consensus that prehistoric Asians crossed from eastern Russian to western Alaska as early as 16,000 years ago, possibly travelling down the coast of B.C. before spreading to the continental interior and the far reaches of South America.

These purported "pre-Clovis" people left indications of their presence in the Western Hemisphere that only recently have become accepted as solid proof by many mainstream archeologists.

The sloth bone took a circuitous route to scientific significance. Discovered in an Ohio swamp at least 95 years ago, the specimen was first documented by a U.S. geologist in 1915 before sitting on the shelf of a local museum for close to a century, overlooked by modern researchers.

U.S. experts led by an archeologist from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History recently re-examined the bone and other ancient remains, and contacted Greenfield - a specialist in early human tools and hunting - to help determine if the 44 incisions on the giant sloth's femur were, in fact, made by humans stripping meat from the downed beast.

"I went down to Cleveland full of skepticism," Greenfield told Postmedia News. "Partly, it was because other colleagues of mine had seen the specimen very briefly (and from a distance) and were sure that the marks were natural. It was only when I got up close to the specimen and began to look at it microscopically did I find a very different situation - one that I could not discount as caused by natural forces."

Greenfield said it was "the total pattern that overturned my skepticism - the location of the marks, their shape, their size, the direction that they were made from, etc., as well as the fact that the morphology of the marks was most similar to those made by stone tools."

The published paper - co-authored by Greenfield, CMNH archeologist Brian Redmond, U.S. National Park Service scientist Gregory McDonald and Firelands (Ohio) Historical Society researcher Matthew Burr - noted that, "until now, evidence of butchering and human utilization of ground sloths has been limited to South America."

But apart from the breakthrough discovery that early humans were hunting giant sloths as far north as the Great Lakes, the extreme age of the specimen - pegged at 13,435 to 13,738 years old through radiocarbon dating - offered a fresh clue in the mystery surrounding humanity's arrival in the Americas and dispersal throughout the hemisphere.

"There is a variety of other pre-Clovis evidence that has accumulated slowly and surely in recent years," said Greenfield. "Our study demonstrated that people were in northern Ohio and predated Clovis in the region by about 700 years."

The Canadian scientist added that, "my feeling is that people came down the west coast of North America, not through a supposed ice-free corridor between the Rockies and the Laurentide glacier" as traditionally believed by North American archeologists.

"As they were coming down the coast, they encountered the massive glaciers that covered the Rockies and could not have crossed it easily into the interior of the continent," said Greenfield. "These early peoples would have been adapted to a coastal existence . . . Probably the origins of the inhabitants of the interior of North America were from a small band of these early hunter-gatherers who branched off from these coastal peoples," first moving inland in Southern California or Mexico before gradually proliferating north and east across North America, while others continued their coastal trek to Central and South America.

Source
Back to top
View user's profile Visit poster's website 
ramonmercadoOffline
Psycho Punk
Joined: 19 Aug 2003
Total posts: 21434
Location: Dublin
Gender: Male
PostPosted: 04-05-2012 19:50    Post subject: Reply with quote

Title open to misinterpretation, I'm sure they weren't into bestiality. Bet they didn't sleep with fossils either.

Quote:
Early North Americans Lived With Extinct Giant Beasts, Study Shows
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/05/120503153929.htm

Barbara Purdy, University of Florida anthropology professor emeritus and archaeology curator emeritus at the Florida Museum of Natural History on the UF campus, stands with a Columbian mammoth skeleton displayed at the Florida Museum to illustrate the size difference between humans and the extinct species. Purdy and vertebrate paleontology curator Bruce MacFadden used rare earth element analysis to show modern humans in North America co-existed with large extinct mammals about 13,000 years ago, including mammoths, mastodons and giant ground sloths. (Credit: Florida Museum of Natural History photo by Kristen Grace)

ScienceDaily (May 3, 2012) — A new University of Florida study that determined the age of skeletal remains provides evidence humans reached the Western Hemisphere during the last ice age and lived alongside giant extinct mammals.

The study published online May 3 in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology addresses the century-long debate among scientists about whether human and mammal remains found at Vero Beach in the early 1900s date to the same time period. Using rare earth element analysis to measure the concentration of naturally occurring metals absorbed during fossilization, researchers show modern humans in North America co-existed with large extinct mammals about 13,000 years ago, including mammoths, mastodons and giant ground sloths.

"The Vero site is still the only site where there was an abundance of actual human bones, not just artifacts, associated with the animals," said co-author Barbara Purdy, UF anthropology professor emeritus and archaeology curator emeritus at the Florida Museum of Natural History on the UF campus. "Scientists who disputed the age of the human remains in the early 20th century just did not want to believe that people were in the Western Hemisphere that early. And 100 years later, every single book written about the prehistory of North America includes this site and the controversy that still exists."

Following discovery of the fossils in South Florida between 1913 and 1916, some prominent scientists convinced researchers the human skeletons were from more recent burials and not as old as the animals, a question that remained unanswered because no dating methods existed.

"The uptake of rare earth elements is time-dependent, so an old fossil is going to have very different concentrations of rare earth elements than bones from a more recent human burial," said lead author Bruce MacFadden, Florida Museum vertebrate paleontology curator. "We found the human remains have statistically the same concentrations of rare earth elements as the fossils."

The little information known about the first humans to appear in North America is primarily based on bone fragments and artifacts, such as stone points used for hunting. Other sites in California, Montana and Texas show human presence around the same time period based on artifacts, but two nearly complete human skeletons were discovered at the Vero Beach site.

As bones begin to fossilize they absorb elements from the surrounding sediment, and analysis is effective in distinguishing different-aged fossils deposited in the same locality. Instead of radiocarbon dating, which requires the presence of collagen in bones, researchers used mass spectrometry to compare rare earth elements in the specimens because a lack of collagen in the Vero Beach specimens made radiocarbon dating impossible, Purdy said.

Researchers analyzed samples from 24 human bones and 48 animal fossils in the Florida Museum's collections and determined the specimens were all from the late Pleistocene epoch about 13,000 years ago. While rare earth element analysis method is not as precise as radiocarbon dating, Purdy said the significance of human skeletons found in Vero Beach is unquestionable in terms of their presence in the Western Hemisphere.

"It is important to note that they [the authors] did not provide an absolute or chronometric date, rather the geochemistry shows that the trace elemental geochemistry is the same, thus the bones must be of the same age," said Kenneth Tankersley, an assistant professor in the University of Cincinnati anthropology and geology departments.

Native fauna during the last ice age ranged from extinct jaguars and saber-toothed cats to shrews, mice and squirrels still present in Florida. Researchers speculate humans would have been wanderers much like the animals because there was less fresh water than in later years, Purdy said.

"Humans would have been following the animals for a food supply, but that's about all we know," Purdy said. "We know what some of their tools looked like and we know they were hunting the extinct animals but we know practically nothing about their family life, such as how these ancient people raised their children and grieved for their dead."

Study co-authors include Krista Church of UF and the University of Texas, and Thomas Stafford Jr., of Stafford Research in Colorado and the University of Copenhagen.

"Vero is a historical context for the development of archaeology -- these are the beginnings of the people of America," MacFadden said. "The site is well-known in the literature but has been discounted, so we're sort of reviving an understanding of this important locality and using newer techniques to revive the question about the antiquity of the humans."

Story Source:

The above story is reprinted from materials provided by University of Florida, via Newswise. The original article was written by Danielle Torrent.

Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. For further information, please contact the source cited above.

Journal Reference:

Bruce J. Macfadden, Barbara A. Purdy, Krista Church, Thomas W. Stafford. Humans were contemporaneous with late Pleistocene mammals in Florida: evidence from rare earth elemental analyses. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 2012; 32 (3): 708 DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2012.655639
Back to top
View user's profile 
ramonmercadoOffline
Psycho Punk
Joined: 19 Aug 2003
Total posts: 21434
Location: Dublin
Gender: Male
PostPosted: 21-05-2012 20:25    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:

Ancient History of Circumarctic Peoples Illuminated
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/05/120517193137.htm

Igloo. Establishing shared markers in the DNA of people living in the circumarctic region, scientists uncovered evidence of interactions among several tribes during the last several thousand years. (Credit: © coco / Fotolia)

ScienceDaily (May 17, 2012) — Two studies led by scientists from the University of Pennsylvania and National Geographic's Genographic Project reveal new information about the migration patterns of the first humans to settle the Americas. The studies identify the historical relationships among various groups of Native American and First Nations peoples and present the first clear evidence of the genetic impact of the groups' cultural practices.

For many of these populations, this is the first time their genetics have been analyzed on a population scale. One study, published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology, focuses on the Haida and Tlingit communities of southeastern Alaska. The other study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, considers the genetic histories of three groups that live in the Northwest Territories of Canada.

Establishing shared markers in the DNA of people living in the circumarctic region, the team of scientists uncovered evidence of interactions among the tribes during the last several thousand years. The researchers used these clues to determine how humans migrated to and settled in North America as long as 20,000 years ago, after crossing the land bridge from today's Russia, an area known as Beringia.

Penn houses the Genographic Project's North American research center.

"These studies inform our understanding of the initial peopling process in the Americas, what happened after people moved through and who remained behind in Beringia," said author Theodore Schurr, an associate professor in Penn's Department of Anthropology and the Genographic Project principal investigator for North America.

Both papers also confirm theories that linguists had posited, based on analyses of spoken languages, about population divisions among circumarctic populations.

Schurr contributed to both papers, along with Penn colleagues Matthew Dulik, Amanda Owings, Jill Gaieski and Miguel Vilar.

The first paper focused on the Haida and Tlingit tribes, which have similar material cultures.

"They share potlatch, or rituals of feasting, totemic motifs and a type of social organization that is based on matrilineal clans and moieties," Schurr said.

Using cheek-swab DNA samples, the analyses confirmed that the two tribes -- although they possessed some similarities in their mitochondrial DNA makeup -- were quite distinct from one another. Comparing the DNA from the Tlingit and Haida with samples from other circumarctic groups further suggested that the Haida had been relatively isolated for a significant period of time. This isolation had already been suspected by linguists, who have questioned whether the Haida language belonged in the Na-Dene language family, which encompasses Tlingit, Eyak and Athapaskan languages.

In the clan system of Haida and Tlingit peoples, children inherit the clan status -- and territory -- of their mothers. Each clan is divided in two moieties, or social groups, for example the Eagle and the Raven in the Tlingit tribe. Traditionally, a person from the Raven clan married someone from the Eagle clan and vice versa.

"Part of what we were interested in testing was whether we could see clear genetic evidence of that social practice in these groups," Schurr said. "In fact, we could, demonstrating the importance of culture in molding human genetic diversity."

The other paper expands this view of circumarctic peoples to closely consider the genetic histories of three groups that live in the Northwest Territories: the Inuvialuit, the Gwich'in and the Tlicho. The Inuivialuit language belongs to the Eskimo-Aleut language family, while the Gwich'in and Tlicho speak languages belonging to the Na-Dene family and the Athapaskan subgroup.

In this study, the researchers analyzed 100 individual mutations and 19 short stretches of DNA from all individuals sampled, obtaining the highest-resolution Y chromosome data ever from these groups.

The team's results indicate several new genetic markers that define previously unknown branches of the family tree of circumarctic groups. One marker, found in the Inuvialuit but not the other two groups, suggests that this group arose from an Arctic migration event somewhere between 4,000 and 8,000 years ago, separate from the migration that gave rise to many of the speakers of the Na-Dene language group.

"If we're correct, [this lineage] was present across the entire Arctic and in Beringia," Schurr said. "This means it traces a separate expansion of Eskimo-Aleut-speaking peoples across this region."

Many of the native groups who have participated in both studies are also enthusiastic collaborators, Schurr said.

"What we find fits very nicely with their own reckoning of ancestry and descent and with their other historical records. We've gotten a lot of support from these communities."

"Perhaps the most extraordinary finding to come out of these two studies is the way the traditional stories and the linguistic patterns correlate with the genetic data," Spencer Wells, Genographic Project director and National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence, said. "Genetics complements our understanding of history but doesn't replace other components of group identity."

Additional contributors to the American Journal of Physical Anthropology paper are Sergey Zhadanov of Penn, Judy Ramos of the Yakutat Tlingit Tribe, Mary Beth Moss of the Huna Indian Association, Francis Natkong of the Hydaburg Cooperative Association and the Genographic Consortium.

For the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences paper, the Penn team worked with Alestine Andre, Ingrid Kritsch, Sharon Snowshoe and Ruth Wright of the Gwich'in Social and Cultural Institute; Crystal Lennie of the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation; Mary Adele Mackenzie, James Martin and Nancy Gibson of the Tlicho Community Services Authority; Thomas Andrews of the Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Center; and the Genographic Consortium.

Support for both studies was provided by the National Geographic Society, IBM, the Waitt Family Foundation and the University of Pennsylvania.

Story Source:

The above story is reprinted from materials provided by University of Pennsylvania.

Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. For further information, please contact the source cited above.

Journal References:

Theodore G. Schurr, Matthew C. Dulik, Amanda C. Owings, Sergey I. Zhadanov, Jill B. Gaieski, Miguel G. Vilar, Judy Ramos, Mary Beth Moss, Francis Natkong. Clan, language, and migration history has shaped genetic diversity in Haida and Tlingit populations from Southeast Alaska. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2012; DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.22068
M. C. Dulik, A. C. Owings, J. B. Gaieski, M. G. Vilar, A. Andre, C. Lennie, M. A. Mackenzie, I. Kritsch, S. Snowshoe, R. Wright, J. Martin, N. Gibson, T. D. Andrews, T. G. Schurr, S. Adhikarla, C. J. Adler, E. Balanovska, O. Balanovsky, J. Bertranpetit, A. C. Clarke, D. Comas, A. Cooper, C. S. I. Der Sarkissian, A. GaneshPrasad, W. Haak, M. Haber, A. Hobbs, A. Javed, L. Jin, M. E. Kaplan, S. Li, B. Martinez-Cruz, E. A. Matisoo-Smith, M. Mele, N. C. Merchant, R. J. Mitchell, L. Parida, R. Pitchappan, D. E. Platt, L. Quintana-Murci, C. Renfrew, D. R. Lacerda, A. K. Royyuru, F. R. Santos, H. Soodyall, D. F. Soria Hernanz, P. Swamikrishnan, C. Tyler-Smith, A. V. Santhakumari, P. P. Vieira, R. S. Wells, P. A. Zalloua, J. S. Ziegle. Y-chromosome analysis reveals genetic divergence and new founding native lineages in Athapaskan- and Eskimoan-speaking populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2012; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1118760109
Back to top
View user's profile 
Display posts from previous:   
Post new topic   Reply to topic    Fortean Times Message Board Forum Index -> Earth Mysteries - historical and classical cases All times are GMT
Goto page Previous  1, 2, 3 ... 13, 14, 15, 16  Next
Page 14 of 16

 
Jump to:  
You cannot post new topics in this forum
You cannot reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum
You cannot vote in polls in this forum


Powered by phpBB © 2001, 2005 phpBB Group