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rynner2Offline
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PostPosted: 22-11-2013 09:46    Post subject: Reply with quote

rynner2 wrote:
Richard III dig: DNA confirms bones are king's

A skeleton found beneath a Leicester car park has been confirmed as that of English king Richard III.
Experts from the University of Leicester said DNA from the bones matched that of descendants of the monarch's family.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-leicestershire-21063882


Giving Richard III a reburial fit for a medieval king
By Sean Coughlan, BBC News education correspondent

The first glimpse of how Richard III could be reburied has been revealed, with the service to be shaped by the scholarly detective work of an Oxford University academic.
Alexandra Buckle, from St Anne's and St Hilda's colleges, has reconstructed how an authentic medieval reburial service should be conducted.
Dr Buckle, an expert in medieval music and liturgical adviser to the committee planning the reburial, has found the only known surviving description of the prayers and music used for reburying medieval aristocrats.

Reburial was a major event in the 15th Century. Dr Buckle says she was surprised to find how widespread it was.
Her research has shown that reburials had their own separate service, different from an ordinary funeral.
This service provides an evocative picture of the medieval world, full of pomp and piety, with prayers that the dry bones being reinterred would be spared the wrathful judgement of God.

Richard III, found by archaeologists last autumn below a Leicester car park, would have attended such reburials in his own lifetime, including for his own father.
And when this last king of the Plantagenet dynasty is reburied next year, with Leicester Cathedral the planned resting place, Dr Buckle's discovery is likely to form an important part of the ceremony.

While arguments have raged about where he should be buried and the design of the tomb, Dr Buckle has been establishing how medieval kings would have been reburied.
The reburial service she has uncovered was rich in ritual and elaborate prayers, filled with the language of purgatory and damnation, calling upon God to rescue the reburied person from the "the filthy whirlpool of this world" and to spare them the "savagely burning fire of hell".

In some cases reburial was a practical matter. If an aristocrat was killed in battle he was likely to be buried quickly in the nearest available graveyard - and then later moved to somewhere grander.
But it was also about changing status. Upwardly mobile families wanted to create their own sense of dynastic heritage, so they dug up their ancestors from humble churchyards and put them into more prestigious settings.
As the fortunes of great families increased, so did the scale of the ancestral tombs. It was a form of posthumous social climbing.

"Anyone who was anyone," was involved in reburial, says Dr Buckle, who lectures in music.
A reburial in a great household could take place over two days, with masses, prayers, processions, paid mourners, incense, choirs, and a feast for more than 1,000 guests. The bones would have been sprinkled in holy water before reinterment.
The reburial of Richard's father was accompanied by three sung masses and a banquet where guests dined on capons, cygnets, herons and rabbits.

This was a profoundly religious society and reburial also had an important part in hopes for after death.
"There was a huge preoccupation with the afterlife," says Dr Buckle.
She says that these medieval warlords were keenly aware of their own less-than-saintly lives. They would have been responsible for the deaths of many people, often by their own hand.
Such nobles needed all the prayers they could get. And they left large amounts of money in their wills to be spent on lavish tombs where they would be reburied later.
"They knew they needed to atone," says Dr Buckle.

The reburial service was part of this spiritual insurance policy. It called for them to be rescued from the "gate of hell" and that the bones would be "re-clothed in flesh" in heaven.
"It was hugely significant what happened after death," she says. The more prayers that were said, the more masses, the more music, were all seen as helping to save their souls.

Once these grand tombs were built, there would be a reburial service, which could be decades after the original funeral.
And Dr Buckle's research has found a template for the words and prayers used in such reburial services, which were carried out from the 14th Century through to the early part of the 16th Century.

Her big breakthrough in discovering the reburial rite came not from an original medieval document, but from a much later copy, lying unrecognised in the British Library.
Many original medieval manuscripts have been lost, not least because they were made of expensive material that was reused.
But a 17th Century scholar and librarian, Humphrey Wanley, had painstakingly copied medieval manuscripts and translated them from Latin into English.

Among the the copies made by Wanley was a transcription of the reburial service and music, used within about a decade of the death of Richard III. Dr Buckle came across this copy while researching another 15th Century noble and realised its significance.
This is the only known surviving version of such a medieval reburial service.
"We can be quite clear that we're dealing with a good copy because he was such an eminent copyist," she says.

The wording showed that this was a general rite, rather than a one-off service. It was structured so that the name of a person could be inserted into the text, marked with the letter N, the Latin "nomine" for name.
The prayers, which would have all been in Latin, focus on dry bones, rather than a body.
They call upon God to "bind together truly dry bones with sinews, to cover them with skin and flesh, and to put into them the breath of life".
The words of the service pray for the "bones we transfer today to a new tomb, so that the shade of death not control him nor chaos and the darkness of shadows cover him".

There are prayers not previously known before. But there are also familiar phrases, such as "ashes to ashes, dust to dust".
The service also calls for eternal rest in words still used in prayers for the dead: "Let perpetual light shine upon them." Dr Buckle says this gives a sense of continuity back to medieval, pre-Reformation England.

The document includes details of several specific psalms and antiphons that were to be sung and from other surviving manuscripts it's possible to reconstruct how they would have sounded.
Dr Buckle says that this template for a reburial service is a way of finally giving Richard III a fitting send-off, in a form that would have closely resembled the prayers used when he reburied his own father.

Richard seemed to be a religious man, his devotional books have survived with his own notes in the margin. And Dr Buckle believes he would have expected such a religious service.
"We know Richard III had a very meagre night-time burial, probably just a basic requiem. He was covered in wounds, probably not embalmed.
"There may have been a shroud, but there is no trace of it, or he may have been buried naked, as it shows how rushed this was."
His body was treated with little dignity after his defeat in battle and his burial place was neglected for many centuries.

"This will give him the funeral he never had," she says.
"And the focus should be on how he is buried, not just where."

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-24643787

(Various sidebars on page.)
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KondoruOffline
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PostPosted: 22-11-2013 10:20    Post subject: Reply with quote

Oh yes please! this sounds like fun.
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ramonmercadoOffline
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PostPosted: 22-11-2013 11:02    Post subject: Reply with quote

A Firing Party with crossbows?
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ramonmercadoOffline
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PostPosted: 22-11-2013 11:31    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:
Alabama posthumously pardons three Scottsboro Boys
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-25046096

Seven of the nine Scottsboro Boys met with lawyer Samuel Leibowitz (second from left) on 1 May 1935

The Scottsboro Boys were accused of rapes that in all likelihood never even happened

The US state of Alabama has granted posthumous pardons to three black teenagers wrongly accused of raping two white girls on a train in 1931.

Treatment of the youths known as the Scottsboro Boys - nine in all - helped spark the US Civil Rights movement.

The boys were convicted by all-white juries.

Eight were sentenced to death but none was ever executed. Five of the boys' convictions were overturned, and a sixth was pardoned in 1976.


The decision by an Alabama parole board is the last chapter in a case that came to symbolise racial injustice in America's deep south, says the BBC's Jane O'Brien.

"While we could not take back what happened to the Scottsboro Boys 80 years ago, we found a way to make it right moving forward," said Alabama Governor Robert Bentley. "The Scottsboro Boys have finally received justice."

In March 1931, during the Great Depression, the boys were travelling by train through northern Alabama among a group of hobos, both black and white.

A fight broke out and the train was stopped near the town of Scottsboro. Nine black teenagers ranging in age from 13-19 were arrested.

"The deputy sheriff realised two of the white hobos were in fact women," historian Dan Carter told the BBC in October. "The young women worried they might be accused of prostitution, so they accused the black boys of having raped them.

"I think anyone today who studied the evidence would conclude no rapes occurred."

'Great day for freedom'
Clarence Norris
In 1946 Clarence Norris was paroled from Kilby prison after serving nine years of a life sentence.
Charles Weems, Andy Wright and Haywood Patterson were pardoned on Thursday by the Alabama Board of Pardons and Paroles (ABPP).

Convictions against Olen Montgomery, Ozie Powell, Willie Roberson, Eugene Williams and Roy Wright were overturned and charges dropped in 1937.

Clarence Norris received a pardon from Alabama Governor George Wallace in 1976. Norris, the last surviving Scottsboro Boy, died in 1989.

Civil rights groups' efforts to fight their convictions and to win new trials sparked civil rights protests and led to two landmark US Supreme Court rulings.

The US high court overturned convictions for some of them in 1932 on the grounds that the teenagers were denied competent legal counsel, and again in 1935 because African Americans were not allowed to serve as jurors during the trials.

The Alabama state legislature passed a law earlier this year allowing the parole board to grant the Scottsboro Boys posthumous pardons.

"Today, we were able to undo a black eye that has been held over Alabama for many years," ABPP assistant executive director Eddie Cook said following the board's unanimous decision.

The men's struggles later inspired books, films and a Broadway musical, as well as the Scottsboro Boys Museum and Cultural Center.

"It is a great day for freedom," the museum's executive director Shelia Washington said.
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rynner2Offline
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PostPosted: 26-11-2013 10:06    Post subject: Reply with quote

Pictured: the 'real site' of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon
A British academic believes she has identified the precise spot of the elusive Hanging Gardens of Babylon - in one of the most dangerous places on earth
By Jasper Copping
7:50AM GMT 24 Nov 2013

It is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World for which the location has for centuries remained elusive.
Now, though, an academic from Oxford University believes she has solved one of the world’s last great archaeological mysteries by identifying the precise spot on which the Hanging Gardens of Babylon once stood.

Dr Stephanie Dalley focused her search hundreds of miles north of the site of the ancient city of Babylon, now near Hillah, in central Iraq, to support her theory that the lush, elevated marvel was in fact built near the city of Ninevah, in the north of the country.

From piecing together clues from ancient texts, the academic has uncovered evidence that the gardens were in fact produced not by the Babylonians and their king Nebuchadnezzar, as has traditionally been assumed, but rather by their neighbours and foes, the Assyrians under their monarch, Sennacherib, around 2,700 years ago.

Sennacherib’s capital, Ninevah, is now near to Mosul, an area of Iraq still wracked by religious and ethnic violence, and although Dr Dalley travelled to the region earlier in the autumn, her team considered it too dangerous to visit the exact spot.
However, using maps, she was able to direct a local film crew, with an armed escort, to the area, next to the ruins of the king’s palace, to survey it on her behalf.

Their footage showed [] a vast mound of dirt and rubble, which slopes down to an area of greenery and looks out onto modern housing and open countryside beyond.
Dr Dalley said: “That’s the best place for it to be. It looks like a good place for a garden.
“More research is now required at the site, but sadly I don’t think that will be gpossible in my lifetime.
“My conviction that the gardens were in Ninevah remains unshaken.”

The footage is the culmination of more than 20 years of research by Dr Dalley, from Oxford University’s Oriental Institute, to prove the correct location of the gardens.

With no archaeological evidence ever found for them, many have dismissed the gardens as a myth.
Knowledge of them is based on a few accounts, written hundreds of years after it was said to have been built by people who never saw it.

One of these accounts claims that it was created by King Nebuchadnezzar, 600 years before the birth of Christ, at Babylon as a paradise in the desert for his wife who missed the green mountains of her home.
However, in the writings of the time - including Nebuchadnezzar’s own texts - there is not one single mention of any garden and more than a century of digging has turned up nothing.

Dr Dalley directed her own research further north after decoding an ancient “cuneiform” text - a script from the Babylonian and Assyrian Empires - that led her to believe the gardens had been attributed to the wrong location, the wrong man and wrong period.

The researcher - one of a handful of people in the world who can read cuneiform - came across a prism at the British Museum with cuneiform text which describes the life of Sennacherib; who lived 100 years before Nebuchadnezzar and reigned over an empire stretching from southern Turkey to modern day Israel, which describes a palace that he built and a garden that he built alongside calling them a “Wonder for all people”.

Further support for the theory comes from a bas-relief, removed from Nineveh and brought to the British Museum, showing his palace complex and a garden featuring trees hanging in the air on terraces and plants suspended on arches.

Because Ninevah is so far from Babylon, this evidence has previously been overlooked. However, Dr Dalley has found that the Assyrians conquered Babylon and their capital became known as “New Babylon”, possibly accounting for the confusion over the names.

Her research, which features in a Channel 4 documentary [last Sunday], Finding Babylon’s Hanging Garden, has led her to establish that the gardens were built in a series of terraces, buit up like an amphitheatre, with a lake at the bottom.
Water was bought to the city and surrounding areas via a 60 mile long canal.
Evidence of this structure, 300ft wide and 60ft deep at some points, remains on the landscape and can be seen on now de-classified photographs taken by US spy satellites and analysed by Dr Dalley.
The greenery would have required around 300 tonnes of water a day.

An inscription found by the academic describes how this was achieved, with water from the lake [being] raised up onto the terraces by a device using the same principles as the Archimedes’ screw - some four centuries before it was thought to have been invented.

Ninevah features in the Old Testament as the city to which Jonah was sent by God to preach against its sinfulness.

The list of wonders was originally drawn up, however, as a guide to “must—see” sights for ancient Greek travellers in the eastern Mediterranean around the third century BC.
Most were destroyed by earthquakes and only the Pyramid of Giza survives.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/environment/archaeology/10470443/Pictured-the-real-site-of-the-Hanging-Gardens-of-Babylon.html

http://www.channel4.com/programmes/finding-babylons-hanging-garden/4od#3609626
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MythopoeikaOffline
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PostPosted: 26-11-2013 19:18    Post subject: Reply with quote

I saw that programme. She puts forth a convincing case.
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PostPosted: 26-11-2013 19:50    Post subject: Reply with quote

Maybe it was the baleful reputation of Babylon but, even as quite a young child, I imagined the Hanging Gardens were a place of execution. I don't remembering ever questioning why something so gruesome should feature among the Seven Wonders!

Given the tendency of historians to exaggerate, I look forward to the discovery of the Hanging Baskets of Babylon. Confused
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rynner2Offline
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PostPosted: 26-11-2013 22:24    Post subject: Reply with quote

JamesWhitehead wrote:
Given the tendency of historians to exaggerate, I look forward to the discovery of the Hanging Baskets of Babylon. Confused

They have many hanging baskets in Penryn in the summer. One time I was in a pub there, and the door was wide open as it was summer, when a cloudburst hit the town - the rain probably exceeded monsoon strength. Everyone looked at each other in amazement, until I said, "Sometimes I think the council overdoes the watering of the hanging baskets...", which got a good laugh from everyone.

(I may have told this story before - but what the heck, not often do I come out with a quip that makes everyone laugh!)
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rynner2Offline
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PostPosted: 30-11-2013 10:38    Post subject: Reply with quote

Elvis Presley record player to be auctioned in Cornwall
By Matt Shepherd, BBC News Cornwall

A record player that Elvis Presley gave to a German woman as a wedding present is expected to fetch up to £2,000 when it is auctioned.
Ellen Marschhauser met the rock'n'roll star when she attended a party at the Hotel Grunewald in Bad Nauheim in 1959.
The record player was a gift for her wedding to Jim Jenkins, with whom she later moved to the UK.

David Lay, the proprietor of the Penzance Auction House, said the sale was creating "so much excitement".
Elvis gave the record player to Miss Marschhauser after she had helped his father, Vernon, with some translation work.
The singer had been carrying out his National Service when he met Miss Marschhauser, who died in 2010.

Elvis was serving in the US Army in Germany when he met Miss Marschhauser The record player, a 'Perpetuum Ebner Musical 5v Luxus', remained in the Jenkins' loft in Cornwall until Mr Jenkins saw a similar model in a newspaper article.

There has already been interest from Elvis fan clubs around the world. An estimate of £2,000 has been placed on the item.
Mr Lay said: "I'm nervous to suggest it's going to make some huge figure. It is an unknown quantity. Nothing like it has come on the market before.
"Normally, it's costumes, or something signed by him, so I am being cautious. It is early days.
"I have never come across anything that has created so much excitement. It's a unique experience for me. We are getting a lot of interest from Germany."

The record players, which were manufactured from the mid 1950s onwards, had three record speeds and a built-in amplifier.
Mr Jenkins said: "We used it at parties. It had a great sound. But the needle broke so I put it away in the loft, thinking I would fix it one day."

Mimi Lay, from the auction house, has carried out many hours of research into the record player's authenticity.
She said: "Elvis is such an iconic figure. He generates so much enthusiasm. There are still so many fans.
"I have no doubts about the veracity of this story. It's been lovely to meet Jim and his friends and family."

The record player will be auctioned at the Penzance Auction House on 12 December.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-cornwall-25105592

With photos: A three-speed record player... Ah, that takes me back!
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rynner2Offline
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PostPosted: 07-12-2013 22:50    Post subject: Reply with quote

http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b01qqf8j/The_Peoples_Songs_Radio_Ga_Ga_A_Celebration_of_Radio/

So what better way to wind up our epic radio series, than to feature a song that celebrates radio itself?

Queen's 1984 number two single might seem something of an odd, possibly even banal track on first listen, but in truth it's deeper than first impressions might suggest. The Queen classic references two legendary radio events; Churchill's Finest Hour speech (as heard in the very first The People's Songs) and also Orson Welles' infamous War of The Worlds broadcast. But more than that, it's a heartfelt diatribe against the dumbing-down of radio station playlists, although this is not something Radio 2 can be accused of doing; boasting, as it does, possibly the most eclectic and wide-ranging programming on the planet. Such a diverse musical menu has been echoed in The People's Songs. In this epic series we've covered everything from Vera Lynn to Black Sabbath, Lonnie Donegan to Dizzie Rascal, Millie Small to Jethro Tull with every sort of musical genre in between.

Though the plethora of ways we can access and listen to music is now dizzying, the radio is still the single most popular way of finding new music and enjoying old favourites. So in this penultimate episode, we'll let the nation reminisce about radio, from Listen With Mother to listening with Peel. Friday night meant it was Music Night or it could mean tuning into The Rock Show. Generations of our nation's pop kids, have huddled under the covers with a portable radio to enjoy whatever we might happen to stumble across on the airwaves, even if it meant tuning and re-tuning the radio to find the illicit thrills of the pirate radio stations. And millions of kids have taken part in the weekly ritual of tuning in for the chart countdown with their cassette recorder or notebook, to record their favourite tracks

Duration 57 minutes Available until 12:00AM Thu, 1 Jan 2099
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krakentenOffline
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PostPosted: 14-12-2013 04:57    Post subject: Reply with quote

I for one really miss radio drama, sadly dwindled to a very few programs.

'The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy' was pure magic, indeed, the pictures are better on radio, and the long running 'Ruby, the Galactic Gumshoe' from ZBS has enthralled me for decades. In America, PBS ran 'Earplay', a truly magical series of original dramas, and adaptations of classics, alas, with the slow death of public radio, 'tis gone,'tis gone.

I want to get the Ruby saga on CD-my tapes are long gone, and I've discovered that there are several new additions to the canon that are unknown to me.

The H.P. Lovecraft Historical Society, a very serious group, produces 'Dark Adventure' audio dramas adapted from Lovecraft's works, complete with period pastiche commercials. Like their films(' The Call of Cthulhu' and 'The Whisperer in Darkness') attention to detail and a real love of the material brings some real thrills to the listener.

I'm amazed at the results.
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Pietro_Mercurios
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PostPosted: 14-12-2013 07:50    Post subject: Reply with quote

You need to check out BBC 4extra at the BBC website.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4extra

Particularly the drama selection.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4extra/programmes/genres/drama/current
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ramonmercadoOffline
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PostPosted: 14-12-2013 10:29    Post subject: Reply with quote

Pietro_Mercurios wrote:
You need to check out BBC 4extra at the BBC website.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4extra

Particularly the drama selection.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4extra/programmes/genres/drama/current


Great, thanks.
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rynner2Offline
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PostPosted: 15-12-2013 21:49    Post subject: Reply with quote

C4: Walking Through History

Duration: 47:00 28 days left

In the late 18th century there was a sure-fire way to earn a living along the Cornish coast: smuggling. The tiny secretive harbours, beaches and secluded coves were ideal for the infamous illicit imports: brandy for the parson, tobacco for the clerk...

It's also great walking country, as Tony [Robinson] discovers in his four-day trek along the stunning coastline between Plymouth and Falmouth.

And the facts are extraordinary. Half of the brandy drunk in the country in the 1780s had been smuggled in illicitly through Cornwall. The smuggling business was so huge that it threatened the national economy.
Tony discovers why so many people were involved in the trade, and why everyone else turned a blind eye.

Along his route, visiting such beauty spots as Lantic Bay and Polperro, he encounters all sorts of reminders of the trade. He meets descendants of the smugglers, handles weapons used in battles with the revenue men, and inspects secret account books kept by the smugglers' banker.

He also hears how the government gradually turned the screws on the criminals, making their lives almost impossible, and how, in a surprising twist, the Cornish themselves decided that maybe their activities were slightly immoral!

http://www.channel4.com/programmes/walking-through-history/4od#3619539

I thought I knew a lot about this subject, but in fact I learned a lot. It gave me a historical framework in which to place my bits and pieces of info, and it explained words like Bootlegger (which I was amused to see used on another FTMB thread today!)
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PostPosted: 15-12-2013 21:55    Post subject: Reply with quote

How about the Old Time Radio site? Very Happy

One of my favourites. I bet you could find nearly anything you've ever heard on there, both American and British.
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