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skinnyOffline
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PostPosted: 18-01-2014 07:17    Post subject: Reply with quote

Pietro_Mercurios wrote:
Before and after photos from the, Massacre at Wounded Knee (1890 & 1973).

http://blogs.denverpost.com/captured/2014/01/02/wounded-knee-1890-1973-photos/6496/
Red Cloud

http://mediacenter.smugmug.com/010-HISTORICPHOTOS/National/2013-12-20-Wounded-Knee/i-SJQCDw2/0/L/wounded-knee-003-L.jpg

Get the full size image at the poster's link. His face is incredible. So full of ... dignity. I see the same in the face of Lincoln.
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rynner2Offline
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PostPosted: 18-01-2014 09:00    Post subject: Reply with quote

Did you know the Lizard Peninsula was home to World War One airship base? PICTURES
6:30am Saturday 18th January 2014

As the anniversary of the outbreak of the Great War appoaches, The Packet looks back a how an airship base near Mullion played a key role in defending shipping from the German submarine threat.

Royal Naval Air Station Culdrose opened in 1947 and since then has been the centre for airborne anti-submarine warfare training and operations in the Fleet Air Arm operating now with Merlin MK 2 helicopters.
Too late to see action during World War 2, RNAS Culdrose was not the first Royal Naval Air Station in the area to specialise in this specific task. Thirty one years previously, during World War 1 RNAS Mullion was commissioned five miles away from the present Culdrose site in 1916.

German U boats at the time were having great success sinking Merchant vessels and Royal Navy Warships in the English Channel. So the decision was taken to use Airships for anti U-boat patrols and RNAS Mullion was established on the Lizard.
Originally called ‘Lizard Airship Station’ 320 acres of the Bonython Estate soon became a large wartime industrial complex, with accommodation blocks, gas storage tanks, processing plants, workshops and two vast airship hangars that towered over the Cornish countryside.
Its strategic position ensured it was well located in the battle against the German threat. RNAS Mullion became central to anti-submarine operations off the Cornish coast and the South Western approaches throughout the war. Airships proved a formidable deterrent against U-boats while performing reconnaissance, patrolling, mine-hunting and convoy escort duties.

At this time the Royal Naval Air Service operated all Airships across Britain and the first to operate at Mullion were the Coastal Class non-rigid type. They were constructed with a Gondola for the crew and a ‘Tri-lobe balloon’, of 170,000 cubic feet of Hydrogen. Coastal’s provided the nucleus of airships from the Lizard and had a crew of five with an armament of four machine guns and a small number of bombs or depth charges. Their open, unheated cockpits were uncomfortable; crew members resorted to walking around the outside on the grab-rails to stretch their legs. In winter, crews risked frostbite and hypothermia. Often ground handlers would have to lift crews from their cockpits after patrols; some lasting over 15 hours at a time.

Other airship types were developed throughout the War but the most successful were the Coastal’s. Often described as ‘The darling of the Airship Service’ C-9 operated from Mullion and chalked up one confirmed and three probable U-boat kills during her long career. She entered service in June 1916 and was struck off in September 1918; completing 3,720 flying hours and covered over 68,200 miles. It was claimed that in her 805 days of service she had never missed an assigned patrol.

While most patrols made no enemy sightings, another Airship C-22 also from Mullion reported an attack in February 1917 after being alerted that a steamer had been torpedoed earlier. Carrying out a sweep of the area Flight Sub Lieutenant Charles Sydney Coltson spotted a submarine surfacing.
“When the conning tower was above the surface and the hull visible, she must have spotted us and began to submerge again. I altered course towards her and opened out to full speed. I got to the spot and dropped one bomb which fell ahead of her and failed to explode.

“I put my helm hard over and released my second bomb scoring a direct hit on the conning tower of the submarine.” C-22’s crew reported a large quantity of oil on the surface and numerous bubbles. Nothing further was seen of that U-boat. Coltson stayed in the area for a further two hours with no sign of the submarine it was credited to his Airship. Flt Sub Lt Coltson received the Distinguished Service Cross, DSC for his service at Mullion. In all four DSC’s, three Distinguished Service Medal’s (DSM’s) and nine mentioned in dispatches were awarded to the Sailors of Mullion.

RNAS Mullion closed in the summer of 1919 after hostilities ended, the airships were decommissioned and the land returned to its owners. Today evidence of Royal Naval Air Station Mullion can still be detected. Six vast wind turbines act as a convenient landmark for the site.

Most of the airship station is now largely overgrown, but the hangar floors along with huge heavy concrete blocks that once supported windbreaks and hangar doors remain and are the only evidence to what was the ‘Front-Line’ of the First World War in Cornwall.

http://www.falmouthpacket.co.uk/news/10945474.Did_you_know_the_Lizard_Peninsula_was_home_to_World_War_One_airship_base__PICTURES/?ref=mr

There's a much larger old airfield, Predannack, still shown on the map south of Mullion, but I don't think I'd heard of Bonython and the airships before. Bonython Manor and the wind turbines are mapped, however.
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ramonmercadoOffline
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PostPosted: 18-01-2014 13:30    Post subject: Reply with quote

Great stuff! Why wasn't it in War Comics?
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krakentenOffline
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PostPosted: 18-01-2014 14:39    Post subject: Reply with quote

Airships have done great service in the anti-submarine role.

Blimps have a long loiter time over a target, when fitted with a rack of bombs they can destroy a sub handily.

More than that, as a threat, they hamper the submarine's operations.

Little known(this is an aside)the U-Boats had a sort of autogiro hang glider they could tow, and spot targets. Sounds crazy, but it worked well enough.

I love airships(for all their many flaws), and have been gratified several times in the past few years by sightings of blimps.

The Zeppelin may reappear, advances in materials could make them practical.

(Btw, airships look quiet from afar, close to, they are as noisy as a pack of cacodaemons, engines, creaking and groaning from the gasbag. Still beautiful things.)
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PostPosted: 21-01-2014 13:17    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:
The Brazilian ranch where Nazis kept slaves
By Gibby Zobel
BBC World Service, Campino do Monte Alegre, Brazil
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-25815796

On a farm deep in the countryside 100 miles (160km) west from Sao Paulo, a football team has lined up for a commemorative photograph. What makes the image extraordinary is the symbol on the team's flag - a swastika.

The picture probably dates from some time in the 1930s, after the Nazi Party's rise to power in Germany - but this was on the other side of the world.

"Nothing explained the presence of a swastika here," says Jose Ricardo Rosa Maciel, former rancher at the remote Cruzeiro do Sul farm near Campina do Monte Alegre, who stumbled across the photograph one day.

But this was actually his second puzzling discovery. The first occurred in the pigsty.

"One day the pigs broke a wall and escaped into the field," he says. "I noticed the bricks that had fallen. I thought I was hallucinating."

Jose Ricardo Rosa Maciel,
The underside of each brick was stamped with the swastika.

It's well known that pre-war Brazil had strong links with Nazi Germany - the two were economic partners and Brazil had the biggest fascist party outside Europe, with more than 40,000 members.

Continue reading the main story

Start Quote

There were photographs of Hitler and you were compelled to salute”

Argemiro dos Santos
But it was years before Maciel - thanks to detective work by history professor Sidney Aguilar Filho - learned the grim story of his farm's links to Brazil's fascists.

Filho established that the farm had once been owned by the Rocha Mirandas, a family of wealthy industrialists from Rio de Janeiro. Three of them - father Renato and two of his sons, Otavio and Osvaldo - were members of the Acao Integralista Brasileira, an extreme right-wing organisation, sympathetic to the Nazis.

The family sometimes held rallies on the farm, hosting thousands of the organisation's members. But it was also a brutal work-camp for abandoned - and non-white - children.

Aloysio da Silva
Silva was known by a number - 23
"I found a story of 50 boys aged around 10 years old who had been taken from an orphanage in Rio," says Filho. "They were taken in three waves. The first was a group of 10 in 1933."

Osvaldo Rocha Miranda applied to be a guardian of the orphans, according to documents discovered by Filho, and a legal decree was granted.

"He sent his driver, who put us in a corner," says 90-year-old Aloysio da Silva, one of the first orphans conscripted to work on the farm.

"Osvaldo was pointing with a cane - 'Put that one over there, this one here' - and from 20 boys, he took 10.

"He promised the world - that we would play football, go horse-riding. But there wasn't any of this. The 10 of us were given hoes to clear the weeds and clean up the farm. I was tricked."

The children were subject to regular beatings with a palmatoria, a wooden paddle with holes designed to reduce air resistance and increase pain. They were addressed not by their name, but by a number - Silva's was number 23. Guard dogs ensured they stayed in line.

"One was called Poison, the male, and the female was called Trust," says Silva, who still lives in the area. "I try to avoid talking about it."

Livestock branded with a swastika
Even the cattle on the farm were branded with a swastika
Argemiro dos Santos is another survivor. As a boy, he had been found on the streets and taken to an orphanage. Then Rocha Miranda came for him.

Continue reading the main story
Brazil and the Nazis

Integralismo brasileiro was a fascist political movement founded in Brazil in 1932
It adopted some of the hallmarks of European fascism - a uniformed paramilitary wing, regimented street demonstrations and anti-Marxist rhetoric
Preached nationalism as shared spiritual identity
Despite its slogan - "Union of all races and all peoples" - many members held anti-Semitic views
The movement was co-opted by President Getulio Vargas, who imposed a full dictatorship in Brazil in 1937
Brazil initially declared itself neutral in World War Two, but in 1942 joined the Allies
Vargas was ousted in 1945
After WWII several Nazis fled to S America - notorious SS doctor Josef Mengele evaded capture for decades and died in Brazil in 1979
WWII: The causes, events and people
"They didn't like black people at all," says Santos, now 89.

"There was punishment, from not giving us food to the palmatoria. It hurt a lot. Two hits sometimes. The most would be five because a person couldn't stand it.

"There were photographs of Hitler and you were compelled to salute. I didn't understand any of it."

Some of the surviving Rocha Miranda family say their forebears stopped supporting Nazism well before World War Two.

Maurice Rocha Miranda, great-nephew of Otavio and Osvaldo, also denies that the children on the farm were kept as "slaves".

He told the Folha de Sao Paulo newspaper that the orphans on the farm "had to be controlled, but were never punished or enslaved".

But Filho believes the survivors' stories. And despite it being a long time ago, both Silva and Santos - who have never met since - tell very similar, harrowing tales.

Argemiro dos Santos with a medal
Santos with his war medal
The orphans' only respite came in football matches against teams of local farm workers such as the one pictured in the photograph with the swastika flag. Football was key to the ideology of the integralistas. Military parades took place at the Vasco da Gama football ground and the game was regularly used for propaganda purposes under Brazil's dictator, Getulio Vargas.

"We'd have a kick around and it evolved," he says. "We had a championship - we were good at football. There was no problem."

But after several years, Santos had had enough.

"There was a gate and I left it ajar," he says. "Later that night, I was out of there. No-one saw."

Santos returned to Rio where, aged 14, he slept rough and worked as a newspaper seller. Then in 1942, after Brazil declared war on Germany, he joined the navy as a taifeiro, waiting on tables and washing up.

He had gone from working for Nazis, to fighting them.

"I was just fulfilling what Brazil needed to do," says Santos. "I couldn't have hate for Hitler - I didn't know the guy! I didn't know who he was."

Santos went on patrol in Europe and then spent much of World War Two working on ships hunting submarines off the Brazilian coast.

Continue reading the main story
Find out more

View from the farm
Gibby Zobel's report from Cruzeiro do Sul farm was featured on Outlook on the BBC World Service

Listen to his report
Browse the Outlook podcast archive
More from the World Service
Today Santos is known locally by his nickname Marujo - "sailor" - and proudly shows off a certificate and medal that recognises his war service. But he is also famous for another reason - as one of Brazil's top footballers of the 1940s, becoming a midfielder for some of the biggest teams in Brazil.

"At that time professional players didn't exist, it was all amateur," says Santos. "I played for Fluminense, Botafogo, Vasco da Gama. The players were all newspaper sellers and shoeshine boys."

Nowadays Santos lives a quiet life in south-western Brazil with Guilhermina, his wife of 61 years.

"I like to play my trumpet, I like to sit on the veranda, I like to have a cold beer. I have a lot of friends and they pass by and chat," he says.

Memories of the farm, though, are impossible to escape.

"Anyone who says they have had a good life since they were born is lying," he says. "Everyone has something bad that has happened in their life."

Colour pictures by Gibby Zobel. His report was broadcast on Outlook, on the BBC World Service. Listen via BBC iPlayer Radio or browse the Outlook podcast archive.
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Pietro_Mercurios
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PostPosted: 21-01-2014 14:12    Post subject: Reply with quote

It's the plot for a horror/sf movie. 'Based on true events!'
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krakentenOffline
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PostPosted: 21-01-2014 16:33    Post subject: Reply with quote

Later, there was a large presence of Allied troops, and Brazil became part of the Allied (United Nations0 forces.

I saw an old book once that told of army Air Corps units stationed in Brazil. With Argentina a near ally of Germany, I can see how it might have been very wise to keep some forces handy, to keep them from doing too much to help the Axis.

Not that the New State rulers of Brazil were saints. The iron fist in the steel glove was their policy.

The brigand DaSilva, known as Lampiao, was finally hunted down and killed by the Brazilian Army, after a long career of outlawry-his severed head(along with his mistress and several top lieutenants) was displayed in the Paaice of Justice, and his family fought a decades long legal battle to get it buried. Not exactly a humanitarian act.

Probably the New State saw which side of the bread had the butter, and decided that Germany was going to be replaced by the USA as the patron of choice.

Brazil is a mysterious place, many things have happened there that the current rulers would rather not have known. Slavery was not abolished there until the 1870s, and then, few people noticed, the patronage system and debt slavery just took up the slack.

Ah, Humanity!
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amyasleighOffline
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PostPosted: 21-01-2014 19:58    Post subject: Reply with quote

krakenten wrote:
Later, there was a large presence of Allied troops, and Brazil became part of the Allied (United Nations0 forces.

I saw an old book once that told of army Air Corps units stationed in Brazil. With Argentina a near ally of Germany, I can see how it might have been very wise to keep some forces handy, to keep them from doing too much to help the Axis.

Going off at a tangent here; but, something which I recently came upon elsewhere on the Net. As stated above, Argentina with its pre-Peron military dictatorship regarded the Axis with favour in World War II, though the country was technically neutral. I was surprised to learn recently, that a month before the German surrender in 1945, Argentina (again, I take it, technically) entered the war on the Allied side. Clearly, a tactical move so as to be on the winning side re any post-war settling-up, and hopefully to avoid being much penalised for the country's stance during the war. Trying to be even-handed -- I suppose a nation's leaders do what they feel they have to do, in their role...
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PostPosted: 22-01-2014 00:13    Post subject: Reply with quote

Maybe this isn't quite forgotten history but its an interesting story. Obviously some really good stuff on the BBC World Service, glad they publish the stories as I never hear the programmes.

Quote:
USS Nautilus: A record-breaking sub
By Claire Bowes
BBC World Service
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-25817797

Crowds watching the launch of USS Nautilus

The USS Nautilus was launched into the Thames River, Connecticut on 21 January 1954

It's 60 years since the world's first nuclear-powered submarine was launched. The USS Nautilus was the first "true" submarine as it did not need to be refuelled and could remain submerged for months. So what was it like living on it?

"I was teased that if I was going to this nuclear power programme, I might become irradiated and sterile and not have any children."

Jerry Armstrong was a 23-year-old sonar operator when he volunteered to work on a new top secret submarine. His wife was four months pregnant at the time and they knew they wanted another child.

"I was concerned, I discussed it with my wife but we knew that other naval and civilian personnel were already working on a prototype so we decided it would be safe."

Armstrong hadn't told anyone about his decision so his family and his in-laws were surprised when they got a visit from the FBI, asking what kind of student he had been and other questions about his lifestyle. His wife's family background was checked closely. Some of the others who'd volunteered for the programme were rejected.

"They were just picked up from the classroom and we never saw them again… the only thing we heard was that their family history didn't satisfy the investigation."

Armstrong was then sent to work on the prototype nuclear reactor in the desert in Idaho, where he and the others spent nine months learning about nuclear fission. Before then, his knowledge of nuclear power was limited to the atomic bombs dropped on Japan.

They were constantly monitored as they worked, he says. "The crew wore two testing devices. One was a film badge… literally made of photographic film which was worn on our belts. The other was a dosimeter which was like a ballpoint pen which we wore in our shirt pockets and would record any radiation."

Finally the Nautilus was ready and on 21 January 1954 she was launched into the Thames River in Connecticut. Twenty thousand people flocked to see it. The wife of President Eisenhower, Mamie Eisenhower, "christened" the submarine by breaking a champagne bottle on it as it slid into the water.

From the outside the Nautilus didn't look all that different to a World War 2 submarine but inside there was much more space because the old diesel-powered subs had to have fuel tanks to carry 90,000 gallons of diesel fuel.

USS Nautilus torpedo room

"Previously submarines stayed under for up to 48 hours and then they had to surface to refuel, recharge batteries or take on air but the nuclear-powered submarine could stay submerged for years if need be," says naval historian and author Don Keith, so it could go anywhere in the world without detection.

"That is the ultimate in stealthiness and what gives it the amazing military advantage. They made their own oxygen, their own water and the reactor core could survive for years without having to be serviced."

Continue reading the main story
Find out more

Jerry Armstrong today

Jerry Armstrong (above) and Don Keith spoke to the BBC World Service programme Witness

Listen via BBC iPlayer
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Armstrong remembers that the recycled air had a strange effect on him.

"I hated cottage cheese, but one time we stayed submerged for a long time and when the ship surfaced I began to crave cottage cheese. I think breathing the recycled air changed my metabolism."

When they surfaced and began to pump fresh air back into the Nautilus "it was so clean and so sweet it made you light-headed".

The Nautilus began going to sea in 1955. During these sea trials it was soon breaking all sorts of records - going deeper, further and faster than any previous submarine. It was able to dive to 700 feet.

"For every 100 feet in depth, there's 44 pounds of pressure per square inch of the vessel. So when we went deep in the ocean, the hull would compress and the locker doors would pop open."

Keith says submariners have to be competent in every area - so the cook has to be able to drive the submarine too. "I don't think I've ever seen anything as close as the brotherhood of submariners," he says.

But because the vessel would be remaining submerged for much longer than ever before, there were concerns this brotherhood might now be tested,

"The US Navy sent psychologists on board the Nautilus because they were concerned about the effects on the personalities and mental health of the men who would be confined in such a small amount of space for long periods."

They found no impact, he says, but some submariners would talk gibberish and pretend to be crazy.

USS Nautilus as sea
In 1958 the Nautilus conducted its most daring experiment - becoming the first submarine to travel under the North Pole.

This sent an important signal to the Soviet Union that the US could operate in its backyard without detection. That same year the Soviets commissioned their first nuclear submarine.

Jerry Armstrong and his wife did go on to have another child, and he says he could not have played his part in the story of the Nautilus without his wife's generosity and understanding.

"When we launched in January 1954, the families went to watch us. One elderly man there said 'that thing is going to go to sea and blow up like an A-bomb'. You can only imagine the effect on the families. It takes a special breed of woman to be a military wife."

The Armstrongs have been married for 60 years.

Witness is broadcast on the BBC World Service. Listen via BBC iPlayer Radio or browse the Witness podcast archive.

US nuclear-powered submarines

Can exceed 25 knots underwater - approx 29 miles (46km) per hour
Able to submerge deeper than 800 feet - the exact depth is classified
Ability to make oxygen on board means they can stay submerged for several months
The reactor uses fuel containing uranium, a radioactive metal
Ships are expected to last 33 years
Source: US Navy
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ramonmercadoOffline
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PostPosted: 22-01-2014 15:23    Post subject: Reply with quote

Another fascinating (imho) tale from the BBC World Service.

Quote:
The Minnesota starvation experiment
By Janet Ball
BBC World Service
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-25782294

Participants of the experiment

During World War Two, conscientious objectors in the US and the UK were asked to volunteer for medical research. In one project in the US, young men were starved for six months to help experts decide how to treat victims of mass starvation in Europe.

In 1944, 26-year-old Marshall Sutton was a young idealist who wanted to change the world for the better. As a conscientious objector and Quaker, he refused to fight in the war but he still craved the chance to help his country.

"I wanted to identify with the suffering in the world at that time," he says. "I wanted to do something for society. I wanted to put myself in a little danger."

That danger came, unexpectedly, in the shape of a small brochure with a picture of children on the front.

"Will you starve that they be better fed?" it asked. It was a call for volunteers to act as human guinea pigs in a medical experiment at the University of Minnesota.

A participant of the Minnesota experiment
A participant of the Minnesota experiment
All over Europe people were starving - in the Netherlands, in Greece, in eastern Europe and the Soviet Union - and the US military wanted to learn how best to re-feed them. But first they had to find healthy people willing to be starved.

Perhaps surprisingly, hundreds of conscientious objectors - or COs - applied, all eager to help. Sutton was grateful to be one of 36 young men chosen.

"I felt very useful, fulfilled," he says. "There were hundreds of people like me who didn't have that type of opportunity, and I felt very fortunate that I could be there."

The experiment started in November 1944 and for the first three months they were fed to their optimum weight and monitored. Then their rations were cut dramatically. Food quickly became an obsession.

"I ate what I had in about three minutes and got out of there - I didn't want to stay," says Sutton, remembering mealtimes in the canteen.

"There were some in the experiment who lingered over that food for 20 minutes. I couldn't take that. Some fellows were reading cook books all the time."

The men ate meals twice a day. One might be cabbage, turnips and half a glass of milk. On another day, it might be rye bread and some beans.

Continue reading the main story
Find out more

Marshall Sutton
Marshall Sutton was interviewed by Janet Ball for the BBC World Service programme Witness

Listen via BBC iPlayer
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Like many hungry people in Europe, the men never had meat, and calories were set at 1,800 or less. But Sutton remembers one occasion when, carrying his meagre rations in a paper bag, he took his girlfriend out to dinner at the most expensive restaurant in Minneapolis.

"I wanted to take her to a restaurant just to enjoy seeing her eat... but when the waiter came up with the food she just couldn't do it. I was a bit disturbed by it, I'd spent all that money on a big meal and she just couldn't eat it."

The regime was tough - during the six months they were being starved, the men were expected to walk or run 22 miles (36 kilometres) every week, expending over 1,000 calories more than they consumed each day.

Their walks took them past bakeries and other temptations - and it was all too much for some participants. Three pulled out of the experiment.

Those that remained lost about 25% of their weight and many experienced anaemia and swollen ankles, as well as apathy and exhaustion. Their ribs stuck out through their skin - their legs were as thin as their arms used to be. And there were psychological effects as well.

Continue reading the main story
Conscientious Objectors as guinea pigs

In New York, COs wore lice- infested clothes to test anti-louse powders - aimed at fighting typhus
In one experiment in the UK, COs were deprived of food and water to replicate the conditions of sailors who'd been shipwrecked
In a Sheffield University study, men were infected with scabies by wearing the dirty uniforms and underwear of soldiers suffering from the disease
At the same centre, some men were infected with malaria
WWII: The causes, events and people
"After you've not had food for a while your state of being is just numb," says Sutton. "I didn't have any pain. I was just very weak. One's sexual desires disappeared."

The men grew anxious and depressed.

"When something good happened, we would explode with joy and when we were pessimistic we were very depressed," Sutton recalls.

"I had a very close friend there and often I'd speak sharply to him and I'd find myself going to him almost every night and apologising."

The men coped in different ways. One man managed to study for a law degree. Sutton read philosophy and theology, and drew comfort from Quaker friends and the church.

Others struggled, occasionally eating illicit food before becoming despondent with guilt. One man even cut off a finger while chopping wood and couldn't explain how or why.

The experiment is still cited as a source of reference by academics studying nutrition and eating disorders, and it raised many questions about how far psychological problems can be treated if the subject is still starving.

Survivors of Buchenwald
Many of the survivors of Buchenwald were emaciated
But in some ways the project came too late. Even as the experiment continued, one Nazi concentration camp was liberated, then another - and the full horror of starvation became apparent.

Men and Hunger front cover
BBC correspondent Edward Ward entered the Buchenwald concentration camp in April 1945, seven days after it was liberated.

"A hollow-eyed emaciated German Jew hobbled across to me," he reported. The man opened the door of a large cupboard. Inside there were about 20 corpses piled high.

"'Last night's crop,' said the man, almost casually. 'It'll be the same tomorrow, and the next day, and the next day.' The wretched inmates have been freed from their Nazi tormenters, but they've not yet been freed from slow starvation."

But while the results may have come too late for many of World War Two's victims, they still could help others.

In 1946, the researchers released a guide book for aid workers - Men and Hunger.

Its advice included:

Show no partiality, and refrain from arguments; the starving are ready to argue on little provocation, but they usually regret it immediately
Informing the group what is being done, and why, is just as important as getting things done - billboards are the easiest way
Starvation increases the need for privacy and quiet - noise of all kinds seems to be very bothersome and especially so during mealtimes
Energy is a commodity to be hoarded - living and eating quarters should be arranged conveniently
A thoughtful worker will make use of the fact that the starving are emotionally affected by the weather -some special and cheerful activities might be saved for bad days
In the last months, the Minnesota men were fed back to health. Different groups got different foods and calorie allowances. But it was months, even years - long after the men had returned home - before they had all fully recovered.

On the day Marshall Sutton left Minnesota, he took a bus to Chicago.

"Every time the bus stopped I had a couple of [milk-]shakes and the world was a wonderful place," he says.

"I had a wonderful sense of having all the food I wanted, but I didn't have the strength - I was so happy and I was eating, but I wasn't normal."

Sutton, like most of the volunteers, went on to lead a healthy and successful life. He worked in Gaza with starving refugees in 1949 then took part in Quaker projects in the US. Now 95, he lives in a Quaker Community in Baltimore.

Seventy years on, he is still glad he took part in the experiment. His friends were risking their lives in the South Pacific, he says, and it was an honour to make a sacrifice himself.

Janet Ball's Witness is broadcast on the BBC World Service on January 20 from 08:50 GMT. Listen via BBC iPlayer Radio or browse the Witness podcast archive.

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amyasleighOffline
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PostPosted: 24-01-2014 19:09    Post subject: Reply with quote

The Minnesota starvation experiment -- indeed, most interesting. From the article quoted: "Perhaps surprisingly, hundreds of conscientious objectors applied, all eager to help." (Only a few of the applicants were chosen.)

I don't find the massive response, at all surprising. In the nature of things, conscientious objectors were likely to be highly ethical and humane types: the guy whose experience is recounted, is told of as wishing to identify himself with the suffering in the world at the time, and put himself in a little danger. I gather that for many conscientious objectors in the World Wars; while they were intellectually convinced that they were taking the right course, gut-wise they felt considerable guilt at staying safe while their non-CO counterparts were risking their lives. Plus, the dislike and contempt that they received from many of their fellow-countrymen, cannot have been comfortable.

I can completely see someone in that situation, eagerly latching onto an opportunity to undergo suffering for the greater good.
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KondoruOffline
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PostPosted: 24-01-2014 23:18    Post subject: Reply with quote

Dont forget the religious fasting aspect
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krakentenOffline
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PostPosted: 25-01-2014 16:56    Post subject: Reply with quote

One thing that was discovred in these experiments was that starving people have very acute hearing.

When my late wife was dying, her weight fell to 89 pounds((she rebounded, her death was from pneumonia and her pain medication) her hearing became very sharp, even though she had abused it for years with loud music.

An experiment I wish I had never observed.
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MythopoeikaOffline
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PostPosted: 25-01-2014 17:02    Post subject: Reply with quote

Very sorry to hear that, Krakenten.

Just a theory about the hearing thing - perhaps it's a natural mechanism to make us all more efficient hunters in the event of starvation?
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Pietro_Mercurios
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PostPosted: 27-01-2014 10:15    Post subject: Reply with quote

ramonmercado wrote:
Maybe this isn't quite forgotten history but its an interesting story. Obviously some really good stuff on the BBC World Service, glad they publish the stories as I never hear the programmes.

Quote:
USS Nautilus: A record-breaking sub
By Claire Bowes
BBC World Service
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-25817797

Crowds watching the launch of USS Nautilus

The USS Nautilus was launched into the Thames River, Connecticut on 21 January 1954

...

Source: US Navy

Ties in with an interesting article, on Salon.com. About how technological advances instigated the birth and development of the, Military Industrial Complex in the UK and USA. Not a conspiracy theory book, but an interesting take on how the State and private industry came to work together on big, expensive and complex military projects.

Too long to post, but well worth checking out:
The invention of the military-industrial complex

Excerpted from the book: Torpedo: Inventing the Military-Industrial Complex in the United States and Great Britain

by Katherine C. Epstein.
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