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Bronze Age Discoveries.
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Mal_ContentOffline
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PostPosted: 08-04-2011 11:32    Post subject: Reply with quote

despite the annoying cutting to stock footage of modern cities (or Neil Oliver walking in a city) the prog was extremely interesting.

BBC iPlayer has it to download as well as streaming:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b0108tsq/A_History_of_Celtic_Britain_Age_of_Iron/

-------------------------------------------------------------

About that hoard of 400 bronze axe heads, the prog failed to properly contextualise it.
Was there anything special about the isle of Purbeck (is it a known location for cross-channel trade?) Were there other deposits locally etc.

there's an account here that helps with context:
http://www.wessexarch.co.uk/book/export/html/170

Whatever it was it must have been a deliberate act, one that was respected by others (as it wasn't disturbed after burial)(or maybe only a few people knew of the burial?), and involved a relatively small group of people (there's probably too much for an individual to carry) - there's no evidence of any ceremonial event occurring at the same time so unlikely to be a socially endorsed event. The axe heads don't seem to be have been used for anything utilitarian, suggesting an exchange/ status purpose. It seems unlikely that they were gathered by a small group over a wide area to be deposited in one place. More likely (?) is that they were produced as a batch and then dumped when it was discovered that the value of them had dropped so much that they were valueless?
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PostPosted: 08-04-2011 11:53    Post subject: Reply with quote

Mal_Content wrote:
Was there anything special about the isle of Purbeck (is it a known location for cross-channel trade?)

The Isle is bordered on the NE by Poole Harbour, so it may well have been on nautical trade routes.

And to the east, Swanage and Studland bays have landing beaches that are well sheltered in westerly weather.
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Mal_ContentOffline
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PostPosted: 08-04-2011 17:04    Post subject: Reply with quote

Time Team did a dig on Green Island in Poole harbour:
http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/T/timeteam/2004_green.html

but that seems to have been mainly iron age, not late bronze age. However there still remains the possibility of it being a cross-channel harbour in the bronze age ?
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rynner2Offline
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PostPosted: 08-04-2011 19:02    Post subject: Reply with quote

Mal_Content wrote:
Time Team did a dig on Green Island in Poole harbour:
http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/T/timeteam/2004_green.html

but that seems to have been mainly iron age, not late bronze age. However there still remains the possibility of it being a cross-channel harbour in the bronze age ?

Don't know for sure. First thoughts are that sea level would have been lower then. But as sea levels rose the harbour (like all tidal harbours) would have continued to silt up, so probably the harbour was about as deep then as it is now.

Wiki says:
Quote:
In 1964 during an archeological dig by the York Archaeological Trust, the fortified remains of a 2000 year old Iron Age longboat were found preserved in the mud off Brownsea Island. Dated at 295 BC, the 10 metres (33 ft) Poole Logboat is the earliest known artifact from the harbour. It would have been based at Green Island in the harbour, and carried up to 18 people. It is thought to have been used for continental trade and was estimated to have weighed 14 tonnes.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poole_Harbour#History

If it was a Channel port then, why not a few hundred years earlier? Rising sea levels and continued silting could well have buried earlier artefacts.
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PostPosted: 20-04-2011 18:34    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:
Inverness campus site's Bronze Age past revealed
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-highlands-islands-13131884

Concept art of new Inverness College The campus would provide a new base for Inverness College

Related Stories

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Evidence of Bronze and Iron Age settlements have been found on the site of the proposed new Inverness Campus.

The remains of timber-built roundhouses and crop marks have been recorded at East Beechwood.

Archaeologists have also uncovered a flint flake and fragments of prehistoric pottery, including Neolithic grooved ware.

AOC Archaeology Group surveyed the site for developer Highlands and Islands Enterprise (HIE).

The campus would provide a new base for Inverness College and the University of the Highlands and Islands (UHI).

Researchers and businesses are also expected to set up on the site.

HIE said the completed project could potentially support up to 6,000 jobs over the next 30 years and generate more than £38m a year for the economy.

AOC surveyed the site in October 2010 and a report on finds made has now been uploaded on Highland Council's Historic Environment Record.

In the report, archaeologists said there was "extensive evidence of prehistoric activities" at East Beechwood.

They have recommended a strategy be produced on how to record the evidence and artefacts.
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PostPosted: 07-05-2011 14:19    Post subject: Reply with quote

Cornish Bronze Age hoard goes on display

A Bronze Age hoard uncovered by a gardener on an island off Cornwall in 2009 is on public display.
The collection of 47 artefacts, found on St Michael's Mount, is on display in the island's castle.

Pieces - including axe-heads, daggers, ingots and a complete metal clasp - have been verified by the British Museum as being about 3,000 years old.
Archaeologists said the objects probably belonged to a blacksmith who had hidden them away for later use.

The objects were discovered by Darren Little when he was clearing ivy and found an opening in some rock.
"I first found a small axe head, and, after some more investigation, founds ingots, pieces of swords and chisels," he said.

Although the age of the objects has been identified, archaeologists said they were not sure how they came to be where they were found.
National Trust archaeologist Jim Parry said: "They could have been stashed away when he was doing a deal and he didn't want to bring them with him, or it could have been a safe bit of overnight storage.
"He could have had a smith's working area in front of him and just tucked some pieces behind him, forgot about them and moved on."

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-cornwall-13320959
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rynner2Offline
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PostPosted: 07-05-2011 16:25    Post subject: Reply with quote

BTW, it seems possible that 3000 years ago St Michaels Mount was not the familiar island we know today. Its Cornish name is Karrek Loos y'n Koos meaning "grey rock in the woods". It may have become an island when the sea rose, but physical evidence and historical records seem to disagree on when that was.
Quote:
Remains of trees have been seen at low tides following storms on the beach at Perranuthnoe, but radiocarbon dating established the submerging of the hazel wood at about 1700 BC.[1] The chronicler John of Worcester[2] relates under the year 1099 that St. Michael's Mount was located five or six miles from the sea, enclosed in a thick wood, but that on the third day of the nones of November the sea overflowed the land, destroying many towns and drowning many people as well as innumerable oxen and sheep; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records under the date 11 November 1099, "The sea-flood sprung up to such a height, and did so much harm, as no man remembered that it ever did before".[3] The Cornish legend of Lyonesse, an ancient kingdom said to have extended from Penwith toward the Isles of Scilly, also talks of land being inundated by the sea.

...

The Mount may be the Mictis of Timaeus, mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia (IV:XVI.104), and the Ictis of Diodorus Siculus.[citation needed] Both men had access to the now lost texts of the ancient Greek geographer Pytheas, who visited the island in the fourth century BC. If this is true, it is one of the earliest identified locations in the whole of western Europe and particularly on the island of Britain.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St_Michael%27s_Mount


But Nigel Pennick, in Lost Lands and Sunken Cities, 1987, says that the 1086 Domesday book entry on the land of St Michael gives it as thirty times its present area, and does not describe it as an island.

All very confusing!
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rynner2Offline
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PostPosted: 07-05-2011 16:50    Post subject: Reply with quote

The trouble is, there are other St Michael's in Cornwall, as he is one of the county's patron saints. Browsing the internet for other info, I discovered that his Saint's Day is tommorrow:

The Truro Diocesan Calendar keeps "St. Michael, Protector of Cornwall," on its feast of special Cornish importance of May 8th

http://homepage.ntlworld.com/lawrence.roy/cornwall/csaints.htm

Cool
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PostPosted: 22-05-2011 09:21    Post subject: Reply with quote

Early Bronze Age battle site found on German river bank
By Neil Bowdler, Science reporter, BBC News

Fractured human remains found on a German river bank could provide the first compelling evidence of a major Bronze Age battle.
Archaeological excavations of the Tollense Valley in northern Germany unearthed fractured skulls, wooden clubs and horse remains dating from around 1200 BC.
The injuries to the skulls suggest face-to-face combat in a battle perhaps fought between warring tribes, say the researchers.

The paper, published in the journal Antiquity, is based primarily on an investigation begun in 2008 of the Tollense Valley site, which involved both ground excavations and surveys of the riverbed by divers.
They found remains of around 100 human bodies, of which eight had lesions to their bones. Most of the bodies, but not all, appeared to be young men.
The injuries included skull damage caused by massive blows or arrowheads, and some of the injuries appear to have been fatal.

One humerus (upper arm) bone contained an arrow head embedded more than 22mm into the bone, while a thigh bone fracture suggests a fall from a horse (horse bones were also found at the site).

The archaeologists also found remains of two wooden clubs, one the shape of a baseball bat and made of ash, the second the shape of a croquet mallet and made of sloe wood.

Dr Harald Lubke of the Centre for Baltic and Scandinavian Archaeology in Germany said the evidence pointed to a major battle site, perhaps the earliest found to date.
"At the the beginning of the Neolithic, we have finds like Talheim in Germany, where we have evidence of violence, but it doesn't look like this situation in the Tollense Valley where we have many humans there in the riverbed," he told the BBC.
"We have a lot of violence from blunt weapons without any healing traces, and we have also evidence of sharp weapons. There are a lot of signs that this happened immediately before the victims died and the bodies are not buried in the normal way."

The archaeologists found no pottery, ornaments or paved surfaces which might be suggestive of formal graves or burial rituals.
Many of the bones appear to have been transported some distance by the river, although some finds appear to be in their original position.
The researchers suggest the bodies may have been dumped in the river before being washed away and deposited on a sandbar. Alternatively, the dead could have been killed on the spot in "the swampy valley environment", the paper concludes.

Dr Lubke believes the real conflict may have been fought out further up the river, and that the bodies so far found represent just a fraction of the carnage wrought by the battle.
"This is only a sample, what we have found up until now - the modern river bed only cuts across part of the river bed of that time. There are likely to be many more remains.
"It's absolutely necessary to find the place were the bodies came into the water and that will explain if it really was a battle or something else, such as an offering, but we believe that a fight is the best explanation at the moment."

Evidence was also found among the human remains of a millet diet, which is not typical of Northern Germany at the time, which the researchers say may betray the presence of invaders.
While bronze pins of a Silesian design could suggest contact with the Silesian region 400km to the south-east, they say.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-13469861
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PostPosted: 05-06-2011 13:37    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:
Guernsey prehistoric site to be excavated
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-guernsey-13646937

Pottery and flint dating back to 2500 BC were found in March 2009

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Guernsey States' archaeologist hopes to get a better understanding of early prehistoric settlements in the island with a major new excavation.

The study is being carried out ahead of work to extend the runway safety areas at Guernsey Airport.

The site will be raised by 2-3m (7-10ft) during the work.

Dr Philip de Jersey said the Neolithic and Bronze Age settlement could provide a valuable insight into some of the island's earliest inhabitants.

'Poorly understood history'
Evidence of a settlement in the field next to La Mare Road, dating back to around 2500 BC, was discovered during initial investigations in March 2009.

Dr de Jersey said that while a number of burial sites from the same era had been discovered, this was a rare example of early prehistoric settlement in Guernsey.


Dr de Jersey said he hoped to discover how the early islanders lived
Further excavations involving museum and Public Services staff are expected to build up a more detailed picture of the area and its historic past.

Dr de Jersey said: "We have some good research on how our ancient ancestors buried their dead, but little evidence of how they lived.

"This is a poorly understood phase of Guernsey's history, so the airport site presents a welcome opportunity to improve knowledge of this period. From that perspective, it is very significant.

"By excavating the area we will be effectively removing whatever history lies underneath the current fields.

"However, in the historical context, the real value is in being able to document what is currently there and what that tells us about out ancient ancestors, rather than preserve it."

Pottery and flint was discovered in some of the 16 test pits, each 2 sq m in size (7 sq ft), dug when the initial investigations were carried out in March 2009.

Further trenches then uncovered evidence of settlement, including a number of ditches and pits, which could be associated with industrial processes.

Work in the field next to La Mare Road is due to start this week and last for six weeks.

Public Services will begin by removing the topsoil from eight large trenches across the site down to a level of about 50cm (20ins) below the current ground level. The previous finds were mostly found about 65cm (25ins) down.

Guernsey Museums staff and volunteers will then be able to excavate further to make a more detailed assessment of the area.
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rynner2Offline
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PostPosted: 04-12-2011 09:45    Post subject: Reply with quote

Bronze age man's lunch: a spoonful of nettle stew
Archaeological dig reveals hundreds of objects, from six oak-tree boats to a bowl of food
Dalya Alberge The Observer, Sunday 4 December 2011

Six boats hollowed out of oak tree trunks are among hundreds of intact artefacts from 3,000 years ago that have been discovered in the Cambridgeshire fens, the Observer can reveal.

The scale, quality and condition of the objects, the largest bronze age collection ever found in one place in Britain, have astonished archaeologists – and barely a fraction of the site has been excavated.

Unique textile fragments, wicker baskets and wooden sword handles have survived. There are even containers of food, including a bowl with a wooden spoon still wedged into the contents, now analysed as nettle stew, which may have been a favourite dish in 1000BC. The boats – two of which bear unusual decoration – are in such good condition that the wood grain and colour can be seen clearly, as can signs of repairs by their owners.

David Gibson, head of Cambridge University's archaeological unit, said the discoveries were internationally important. "One canoe would be great. Two, exceptional. Six almost feels greedy," he said. Mark Knight, the unit's senior project officer, added: "We talk about bronze age landscapes and it always feels as if we're looking through a very narrow window, with the curtains partly drawn or slightly misted over. Now it's as though someone's opened the windows and we're seeing so much more."

The artefacts survived because they were immersed in deep layers of peat and silt. When those layers are lifted off, "the objects are so pristine", Knight said, "it's as if 3,000 years never happened. The softest, wettest deposits ensured that past activity has been cosseted."

The artefacts were submerged under an ancient watercourse along the southern edge of the Flag Fen Basin, land altered over millennia by rising sea levels. In the 17th century the Dutch showed how to drain waterlogged land, and today the site east of Peterborough is accessible. Knight said: "In our [bronze age] landscape… you could have walked along the bottom of the fenland basin and to the bottom of the North Sea hunting for deer. By the Roman period, you were perched up at Peterborough, looking out over a huge wet expanse of peat and reed swamp." At ground level, there had been no clue to the artefacts' existence because they were so deep – four metres below ground – and would not have been picked up by aerial, radar, or other exploratory surveys.

The excavation, which is likely to continue for years, has been made possible thanks to Hanson, a bricks and cement supplier. Under planning regulations, the company is obliged to fund archaeological digs, but it has been especially helpful, say the archaeologists. Crucially, and unusually, they were able to excavate down to unprecedented depths since Hanson's need for clay for bricks requires extraction at Jurassic age levels. Knight said: "So we get to see entire buried landscapes. Some of our colleagues try to find ways of getting to the bottom of the North Sea… [while] we get an early view of the same submerged space, but via the humble brick."

Along the 150-metre stretch of a bronze age river channel, they have found the best preserved example of prehistoric river life. There are weirs and fish traps in the form of big woven willow baskets, plus fragments of garments with ornamental hems made from fibrous bark and jewellery, including green and blue beads. Extensive finds of metalwork include bronze swords and spears, some apparently tossed into the river in perfect condition, possibly as votive offerings. One of the boats is 8.3 metres long. "It feels as if you could get the whole family – granny, grandad, a couple of goats and everything – in there," said Knight. The smallest boat is just over four metres long.

The finds reveal how, with the rise in water levels in the bronze age, people adapted to a wetland environment, using rivers for transport, living off pike, perch, carp and eel. How far they could travel in the log boats is unclear. Although the boats were unlikely to have been used at sea, one of the bronze age swords is of a type normally found in northern Spain.

Once removed from the fenland, the artefacts must be conserved before eventual public display. Knight said: "Often at an excavation, it takes much imagination for it to become apparent. This site doesn't need that. It's intact. It feels as if we've actually caught up the [bronze age] people. It feels like we're there."

http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2011/dec/04/bronze-age-archaeology-fenland
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PostPosted: 18-02-2012 09:50    Post subject: Reply with quote

Prehistoric cybermen? Sardinia's lost warriors rise from the dust
David Keys Friday 17 February 2012

An elite force of prehistoric warriors – carved from solid rock in the western Mediterranean 2700 years ago – is rising from oblivion.
Archaeologists and conservation experts on the Italian island of Sardinia have succeeded in re-assembling literally thousands of fragments of smashed sculpture to recreate a small yet unique army of life-size stone warriors which were originally destroyed by enemy action in the middle of the first millennium BC.

It’s the only group of sculpted life-sized warriors ever found in Europe. Though consisting of a much smaller number of figures than China’s famous Terracotta Army, the Sardinia example is 500 years older and is made of stone rather than pottery.

After an eight year conservation and reconstruction program, 25 of the original 33 sculpted stone warriors – archers, shield-holding ‘boxers’ and probable swordsmen – have now been substantially re-assembled.

The warriors were originally sculpted and placed on guard over the graves of elite Iron Age Sardinians, buried in the 8 century BC. The stone guardians are thought to have represented the dead individuals or to have acted as their eternal body-guards and retainers.

However, within a few centuries, the Carthaginians (from what is now Tunisia) invaded Sardinia – and archaeologists suspect that it was they who smashed the stone warriors (and stone models of native fortress shrines) into five thousand fragments. It’s likely that the small sculpted army - and the graves they were guarding - were seen by the invaders as important symbols of indigenous power and status.

The site was abandoned and forgotten. Carthaginian control of Sardinia gave way to Roman, then Vandal, then Byzantine, Pisan, Aragonese, Spanish, Austrian, Savoyard and finally Italian rule.

The thousands of fragments were rediscovered only in the 1970s – and were excavated in the early 1980s by Italian archaeologist Carlo Troncheti. Two of the statues were then re-assembled – but the vast majority of the material was put into a local museum store where it stayed until 2004 when re-assembly work on the fragments was re-started by conservators in Sassari, northern Sardinia.

Sardinia’s newly recreated ‘stone army’ is set to focus attention on one of the world’s least known yet most impressive ancient civilizations – the so-called Nuragic culture which dominated the island from the 16 century BC to the late 6 century BC. Its Bronze Age heyday was in the mid second millennium BC - roughly from the 16 to the 13 century BC, when it constructed some of the most impressive architectural monuments ever produced in prehistory.

Even today, the remains of 7000 Nuragic fortresses (the oldest castles in Europe) still dominate the landscape of Sardinia. Several dozen have stood the test of time exceptionally well – and give an extraordinary impression of what Sardinian Bronze Age military architecture looked like.

The re-assembled stone army is expected to go on display from this summer at southern Sardinia’s Cagliari Museum, 70 miles south-east of the find site, Monte Prama in central Sardinia.

Many of the stone warriors are armed with bows or protected by shields – and wear protective carved stone armour over their chests and horned stone helmet over their heads. Some of the fighters – those believed to portray boxers – carry shields in their left hands, held aloft over their heads. These ‘boxers’ may well have represented or embodied shield-bearers serving the high-ranking members of the Sardinian Iron Age interred in the adjacent graves.

There were also a series of at least ten model Nuragic castles of different designs – some single-towered and others sporting more elaborate ‘multi-tower’ fortifications.
It’s likely that the models represent the actual monumental buildings (Bronze Age fortresses transformed into Iron Age ‘ancestral’ shrines) associated with each buried individual’s immediate family.

The ruling elite of this part of Sardinia may well have been a relatively tightly knit group of closely related individuals. For scientific work carried out on the skeletal material at a laboratory in Florence, suggests that most of the dead individuals were from just two generations of a single extended family.

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/archaeology/prehistoric-cybermen-sardinias-lost-warriors-rise-from-the-dust-6988952.html
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PostPosted: 15-03-2012 23:06    Post subject: Reply with quote

Possibly even a bear paw-print! Pursuing the rest no doubt!

Quote:
Ancient footprints found in peat at Borth beach
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-mid-wales-17353470

The footprints have been found in an area of exposed peat, along with holes which could have supported a causeway across ancient salt marshes

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Human and animal fossilised footprints that may be from the Bronze Age have been exposed on a Ceredigion beach.

Archaeologists are racing against changing tides to record and excavate the find in peat at Borth, which gives a snapshot of a time when the shore lay further west.

The team believes the footprints could be 3,000 to 4,000 years old.

Staff and students from the University of Wales Trinity St David are carrying out the work.


A child's footprint and the cast taken of it in the peat at Borth
As well as the footprints, a line of post holes has been found, which could have been a causeway.

They lie across an area that would have been salt marsh when the footprints were made.

The Royal Commission on Ancient and Historic Monuments is providing survey support, mapping the extent of the peat and other exposed features.

Submerged forests have been found further north on the beach and nearby in the past.

Dr Martin Bates is one of the archaeologists leading the excavation team, and it was his father, retired geologist Denis Bates, who discovered the footprints last month.

Dr Bates told BBC Wales' news website: "My father has had an interest in submerged forests for many years.

"He was down in February as this part of the beach was very clear.

"For various reasons the patterns of sand movement have been temporarily altered and it means this area of beach has been stripped of sand.

"He noticed the marks and told me they didn't look natural."


Archaeologists and students carry out the work on Borth beach in a race against shifting sands
He estimates they have a window of a few months to log the discoveries and take samples away for environmental testing before the sands shift again and cover the footprints up.

"In the context of Ceredigion and west Wales, it's the first time we have found this type of evidence.

"The submerged forests [nearby] are probably the most significant in the UK.

"What we have never had before is documented evidence of human habitation."

'Quite special'

Dr Bates added that there were a range of footprints discovered, including cattle, sheep or goat and possibly a bear.

However the one which resonates with him is a print which belonged to a young child.

"We have got a footprint of a four-year-old's foot where we can see the toes and everything.

"I can stand where this child was standing about 4,000 years ago and even though we would have been seeing different things, the intimacy of that is quite special."

Work in previous years on submerged forests found on the area to the north has established that a forest was growing in the area between 3000 and 2500 BC.

The area was gradually waterlogged with peat growth. A number of finds in the area included a Mesolithic composite tool of antler, two flints, an auroch (extinct ox) skeleton and a piece of antler.
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PostPosted: 22-03-2012 21:44    Post subject: Reply with quote

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'Prehistoric' antler hammerhead and human skeleton unearthed in Burren
http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/ireland/2012/0322/1224313701886.html

Thu, Mar 22, 2012

A leading archaeologist has described the discovery of what is a likely “prehistoric” antler hammerhead at a Burren cave as hugely exciting.

Dr Marion Dowd of IT Sligo said a 10-day excavation at a small cave on Moneen Mountain outside Ballyvaughan, Co Clare, also produced the “poignant” discovery of a skeleton of a teenager thought to have sought shelter in the cave.

Carbon dating found the skeletal bones date from the 16th or 17th century.

The skull of the skeleton and the antler hammerhead were discovered by cavers last June, prompting the National Museum Service to fund the excavation led by Dr Dowd last August.

She presented the results last night in the Burren village of Tubber at a Burrenbeo talk and said the cave was used in the Bronze Age or 3,000 years ago and again at the end of the medieval period.

Dr Dowd said “the discovery of the fabulous antler hammerhead is hugely exciting. I can’t find any other parallels in Irish archaeology.”

The antler came from a red deer stag aged over 6½ years old. She said the hammerhead “is likely to be prehistoric” but tests have yet to be completed to confirm the date.

Dr Dowd said DNA tests are required to determine the sex of the teenager. “The bones show . . . the skeleton is somewhere between 350 and 500 years old.”
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PostPosted: 18-04-2012 07:26    Post subject: Reply with quote

Not a new discovery, but a new chance to view:

Penlee Museum shows Bronze Age necklace Penwith lunula

A Bronze Age necklace found in Cornwall in the 18th Century has returned to the county after being housed at the British Museum for more than 150 years.
The necklace, known as Penwith lunula, has been loaned to the Penlee House Gallery and Museum in Penzance.
The crescent-shaped gold collar is thought to date back to the early Bronze Age - possibly to 2500 BC.

It was discovered in the Gwithian area of the county in 1783 and recorded by local man John Price.
Alison Bevan, director of the Penlee, said: "I had butterflies as it was put on display.
"It's absolutely exquisite and really exciting to have it on loan."

Since 1838 it has been housed at the British Museum, but it will be on display in Cornwall for the foreseeable future.
In 2011, the lunula was on show at the Penlee for a few weeks, but Ms Bevan said it was the first time it had been on display for an extended period.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-cornwall-17745523

(Of interest to me, because Gwithian is just across St Ives bay from Knill's Monument, which was built in 1782.)
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